115+ Pathology Complex Questions Cmt Nta 4

1. What is Pathology? And its evolution.

2. Explain subdivisions of pathology.

3. What is Disease and aspects of disease?

4. Classification of disease.

5. Mention in which ways Cell injury occur.

6. What is cell death and two types of cell death?

7. Difference between necrosis and apoptosis.

8. Causes of cell injury.

9. Define adaptation, physiological adaptations and pathological adaptations.

10. Mention types of cellular adaptations and explain them.

11. Causes of atrophy.

12. Mention two morphologic correlates of reversible cell injury.

13. Mention patterns of tissue necrosis and explain them.

14. What is infarct? And mention two types of it.

15. What   is   inflammation and its types?

16. Explain the components of acute inflammations.

17 . Causes of acute inflammations.

18. Clinical features of acute inflammation.

19. Explain the vascular changes during acute inflammation.

20. Components of exudates and the advantages of exudation.

21. Explain the mechanism for increased endothelial permeability.

22. Events during acute inflammation.

23. What are the morphologic patterns of acute inflammation?

24. What are the chemical mediators of inflammation and classify them and explain?

25. The outcomes of acute inflammation.

26. What is chronic inflammation and its causes?

27. What are the general features of chronic inflammation?

28. Mention the organs of which macrophages are found.

29. What is dominant cell in chronic inflammation?

30. What are the types of chronic inflammation?

31. Explain the sequels of chronic inflammation.

32. Examples of diseases with granulomatous inflammation.

33. What are the outcomes of chronic inflammation?

34. What are the systemic effects of chronic inflammation?

35. Effects of water and salt depletion.

36. What are the causes of water disturbance and sodium balance?

37. Explain the mechanism of edema formation?

38. What is shock and its types with causes?

39. Causes of neurogenic and cardiogenic shock.

40. Explain the stages of shock.

41. Define hemostasis and thrombosis.

42. What are the risk factors of thrombosis and its causes?

43. Mention the types of thrombi and the fates.

44. What is embolism and its classification?

45. Mention three conditions for the development of thrombus.

46. Causes of anemia.

47. Causes of hemolytic anemia.

48. Mention anemia resulting from nutritional deficiencies and marrow suppressions.

49. Causes of hemorrhagic disorders divided into four parts mention them.

50. Mention the hereditary clotting disorders.

51. Causes of extra hepatic and intrahepatic obstructive jaundice.

52. Biochemical manifestation of obstructive jaundice.

53. Causes of hepatocellular jaundice.

54. Difference between transudates and exudates.5

55. Difference between benign and malignant tumors.

56. Define mutation and types of mutation.

57. Mention the three categories of genetic disorders.

58. Mention the three patterns of genetic inheritance disorder.

59. Examples of autosomal dominant diseases.

60. Examples autosomal recessive diseases.

61. Examples x-linked recessive diseases.

62. What is immunity and its types?

63. Major components of innate immunity.

64. Types of adaptive immunity.

65. Types of hypersensitivity.

66. What are the causes of hypersensitivity diseases?

67. Examples of antibody mediated abnormalities.

68. What is autoimmunity and its types?

69. Mention the secondary factors that may cause immune deficiency disease.

70. Mention the pathological lesion in type 1 hypersensitivity.

71. Mention the tumor marker signs.

72. Mention the characteristics of benign and malignant tumor.

73. Mention at which ways infectious diseases can be transmitted.

74. Mention the host’s susceptibility to infection.

75. Mention the host’s protective barriers.

76. Explain the mechanism of infection in viral diseases.

77. Explain the pathogenesis of bacterial injury.

78. Define the following arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis and aneurysm.

79. Causes of endothelial injury.

80. Classification of aneurysm and its causes.

81. Features of varicose veins.

82. Clinical predisposition for deep venous thrombosis of legs.

83. Define the following thrombophlebitis and phlebothrombosis.

84. Causes of secondary lymphedema.

85. Explain the spectrum of pneumonia.

86. Explain the histological spectrum of pneumonia.

87. Stages of pneumonia before the era of antibiotics.

88. Complication of pneumonia.

89. Mention the two commonest malformation of penis.

90. Mention the scrotal disorders.

91. What is orchidopexy?

92. Classification of carcinoma of prostate.

93. Causes of the carcinoma of prostate.

94. Histological types of prostate cancer.

95. What are   emphysema and its classifications?

96. What are atelectasis and its classification?

97. Mention the enteric nervous of the GIT.

98. Characteristics of mucous membrane of the GIT.

99. Defense mechanism of the GIT system.

100. Causes of abdominal pain.

101. Mention the disorders of the gall bladder and extra hepatic bile duct.

102. Types of pancreatic neoplasia.

103. Mention the major mechanism that combines to create cirrhosis.

104. Causes of hypoglycemia.

105. Types of wound healing.

106. Mention the phases of wound healing.

107. Mention the roles of extracellular matrix.

108. Mention the four sequential processes of repair by connective tissue deposition.

109. Mention the sequence events in wound healing.

110. Types of body tissue.

111. Name the metabolic disorders that are associated with glucose metabolism in human body.

112. Mention the risk factors of ovarian cancer.

113. Mention three cells that make up the ovarian tumor.

114. Explain the leukocytes recruitment

115. Pathologies  caused by type 4 hypersensitivity

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