500+ Physiology Complex Questions


1.What is endocrine

2.what is exocrine?

3.Describe circle of wills

4.What are the blood supply to Medulla

5.Discuss blood supply midbrain.

6.What are the Blood supply to pon.

7.Discuss blood suppy in thorax,head,neck.

8.Explain venous drainage in Brain.

9.Why Alcohol drinker ends with Hypoglycemia?

AA10.Explain blood supply to the pelvis.

11.Explain Blood supply to the Thigh.

12.Explain the function of Growth hormone.

13.Explain the five hormone secreted by pituitary Gland.

14.What is the relationship between parathomone and vitamin D.

15.Discuss the process of Urine formation.23

16.Explain How Nephrone perform its work.

17.What are the hormones secreted by anterior pituitary gland.

18.What are the hormones secreted by posterior pituitary Gland.

19.Why thyroxine many times changes into Triiodothyronin.

20.What are the function of stomach.

21.Describe digestive system in the small intestine.

22.Describe digestive system in the stomach.

23.Mention Three types of cell responsibe for Hormones production.

24.Mention three type cell in pancrease and their Hormone secreated.

25. Describe the blood supply of the brain (circle of Willis)

26. Describe the structure of the adrenal gland explain the functions of the hormones secreted by adrenal gland

27.Describe hormonal control of Glucose metabolism.

28.Describe hormonal control of protein metabolism.

29.Describe Glucose metabolism.

30.Describe protein and lipid metabolism.

31.Mention the hormones produced by the pituitary gland.

32.List the Hormones produced by the islet pancrease and the hormones produced by thyroid Gland.

33.Mention accessory organ and Accessory Gland of male reproductive organ.

34.What is the control mechanism of hormone produced by pituitary gland.

35.What are hormones secreted by endocrine pancreas, explain the function of insulin.

36.Explain the structure of the Thyroid Gland, explain production and functions of thyroid forming.

37.Define endocrine Gland what are the major endocrine glands of the body list the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland explain the function of the growth hormone.

40.Explain secondaly male and female characteristics at puberty which hormone influence these characteristics changes.

41.Describe the structure and functions of uterus what are the hormone changes during endomentrial cycle.

42.Describe the body reactions that occur during the fight or flight responses.

43 Case history: Jacqueline hates her new student ID photo. Her hair looks dry, the extra weight she has gained is obvious, and her neck looks fat. In fact, there is an odd butterfly-shaped swelling across the front of her neck, under her chin. 

Jacqueline has also be feeling very tired and mentally “dull” lately. Jacqueline goes to the hospital and blood is drawn for investigation. The results show that her T4 levels are low and her TSH levels are low too. Later she is given a TSH stimulation test in which TSH is injected and the T4 levels are monitored. After TSH injection, her T4 levels rise.

Q.2. From the scenario above: Does Jacqueline have problems with her pituitary gland or with her thyroid gland? How did you come to your conclusion? Explain

44. What factors stimulate ACTH secretion? Mention two only.

45. What stimulates release of ADH? List three factors.

46. There are four main types of cells in the pancreatic islets. Mention the names of these cells and the hormones they produce

47. The adrenal cortex is divided into three zones, or layers. Give the names of the three zones and their corresponding hormones.

48. The following questions define the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)

(a) Where is renin produced? 

(b)What does renin do? 

(c) What does angiotensin-converting enzyme do? 

(d) What are the effects of angiotensin II? 

49. List three organs or tissues that are not exclusively classified as endocrine glands but contain cells that secrete hormones.

50. How are blood levels of glucagon and insulin controlled?

51. How is TSH regulated?

52. Tropic hormones are hormones produced by the anterior pituitary that target other endocrine glands. Name the four principal tropic hormones.

53. The anterior pituitary is also known as the _______________ and the other name for the posterior pituitary is ___________________ 

54. List six (6) important hormones that are secreted by the hypothalamus into the hypophyseal portal system .

55. The hypophyseal portal system carries blood from the _________________directly to the_______ ______________where the target cells of the releasing hormones are located. 

56. Endocrine glands are also known as ductless glands. Why? 

57. What is a hormone? 

58. List the hormones secreted by adrenal gland (adrenal medulla) and adrenal context. Explain the functions of these hormone.

59. List 8 major endocrine glands

60. Write short notes on the hormonal roles of the pancreas in relation to diabetes.


1. Define physiology

2. Mention importance of physiology

3. Explain levels of organization in the body

4. Define homeostasis 

5. Briefly explain homeostatic control systems

6. Define feedback mechanism 

7. Define negative feedback loops

8. Define positive feedback loops 

9. Define feed forward mechanisms

10. Outline functions of the blood 

11. Mention constituents of plasma 

12. Mention functions of plasma

13. Explain different types of blood groups

14. Briefly explain production of red blood cells(erythrocytes)

15. Outline functions of red blood cells

16. Briefly explain production of white blood cells(leucocytes)

17. Mention white blood cells differentials and state functions for each

18. Mention clinical importance of white blood cells differentials

19. Mention function of white blood cells 

20. Mention function of platelets

21. Mention functions of a spleen

22. Briefly explain body fluid compartments 

23. Outline 5 constituents of body fluid compartments

24. Mention 5 differences between icf and ecf 

25. Mention the constituent of lymph of the lymphatic system 

26. Describe the draining system 

27. Mention the functions of the lymphatic system

28. Explain the conduction system of the heart 

29. Explain the pulmonary circulation

30. Write short notes of the circle of wills

31. Explain on foetal circulation 

32. Mention components of the respiratory tract

33. And in each component outline its functions 

34.  briefly explain respiratory process

35. Mention and define the type of cellular respiration

36. Outline the constituents of saliva

37. Mention functions of saliva

38. Outline constituents of gastric juice

39. Mention functions of gastric juice

40. Write short notes gastric enzymes

41. Outline constituents of small intestine enzymes 

42. Mention functions of small intestine enzymes

43. Outline the functions of the liver

44. Explain the metabolism of bilirubin

45. Explain the production of pancreatic secretions

46. Outline functions of pancreatic secretions

47. Define endocrinology

48. Mention the importance of endocrine system

49. Explain regulation of hormone production in the body 

50. Functions of hypothalamus

1. Mention four (4) functions of serum proteins


Transportation of lipids, vitamins etc

Immune system – antibodies

Act as enzymes

Hemostasis – blood clotting

Regulation of blood pressure (Oncotic pressure)

2. Name three (3) major electrolytes in the extracellular fluid compartment






3. Mention four (4) functions of the kidney


Excretion of metabolic waste products and foreign chemicals 

Regulation of water and electrolytes balance

Regulation of body fluid osmolarity and electrolyte concentration

Regulation of arterial blood pressure

Regulation oof acid – base balance

Secretion, metabolism and excretion of hormones


4. What is the function of Kidney in glucose metabolism?


Kidney synthesize glucose from amino acids and other precursor (i.e Gluconeogenesis)

5. Define the term “micturition”


Micturition is the process by which the urinary bladder empties when it become filled

6. State two (2) major functions of Vitamin B12


Promotion of growth

Promotion of Red blood cell formation and maturation

7. Name four (4) Vitamin K – dependent clotting factors


Factor II (Prothrombin)

Factor VII

Factor IX

Factor X

8. Name the basic function of Vitamin A


Formation of visual pigments

9. Enumerate two (2) importance of cholesterol in the body


Component of cell membranes

Precursor in the synthesis of steroid hormones, bile acids and Vitamin D

10. Mention type of antibody against Red blood cells present in each of the following blood group

a) Group A

b) Group B

c) Group O


a) Antibody against B antigen

b) Antibody against A antigen

c) Antibodies against A and B antigens

11. State the Starling forces which determine filtration across the capillary membrane


Blood hydrostatic pressure

Blood osmotic (Oncotic) pressure

Interstitial hydrostatic pressure

Interstitial osmotic (Oncotic) pressure

12. What is the function of Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)?


ACTH stimulate secretion of glucocorticoids steroid hormones from adrenal cortex cells

13. Name any four (4) transcellular fluids


Cerebrospinal fluids


Synovial fluid

Vitreous humor

Aqueous humor 

Pleural fluid 

Peritoneal fluid

14. Mention four (4) functions of epithelial tissues


Protection of underlying tissues



Reception of sensory stimuli

15. Name five (5) hormones secreted from the hypothalamus


Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)

Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)



16. What will be the result of excessive activity of Parathyroid gland?


Rapid absorption of calcium salt from bones

Hypercalcemia results in the extracellular fluid compartment

17. Mention three (3) types of Lipoproteins


Very low density lipoprotein

Low density lipoprotein

High density lipoprotein

18. State three (3) metabolic effects of Insulin


Stimulate glucose uptake by muscles and connective tissues

Increase conversion of glucose to glycogen

Prevent breakdown of protein and fats

Decrease Glycogenolysis

19. Mention two (2) hormone from the anterior Pituitary which target direct the Gonads


Follicle stimulating hormone

Lutenizing hormone

20. Name the three (3) steps in urine formation





21. State three (3) functions of lymph


Remove metabolic waste from the tissue cells

Maintain the composition of tissue fluid

Absorb fats from the small intestine through lymphatic vessels

Act against the pathogenic infections of microbes

Supply nutrients to the body

22. Mention three (3) function of the nose in respiration


Warm air

Humidify air

Filter air

23. What are the two (2) important components in calculation of Cardiac output?


Stroke volume

Heart rate

24. Enumerate four (4) functions of hepatocytes


Bile production




Synthesis of blood components 

25. Mention five (5) components of heart conduction system


Sinoatrial node

Atrioventricular node

Bundle of His

Bundle branches 

Purkinje fibres

26. State the function of each of the following;

a) Intrinsic factor

b) Pepsin

c) Gastric mucus


a) Intrinsic factor combines with Vitamin B12 and makes it absorbable

b) Pepsin breakdown protein into peptides

c) Gastric mucus lubricate food and act as protective barrier of the lining epithelium

27. Mention three (3) functions of Hydrochloric acid produced from the Parietal cells


Convert Pepsinogen to Pepsin

Destroy some bacterial and microbes

Provide optimal PH environment for Pepsin

Stimulate the small intestine to release Secretin and CCK

28. Mention three (3) major features which increase the absorptive surface of the small intestine


Presence of mucosal folds

Presence of villi

Luminal plasma membrane has microvilli 

29. State the process of starch and lipid digestion in the oral cavity of human being.


Starch will be converted to sugar by Salivary amylase

Lipid will not be changed as Lingual lipase is inactive

30. Name three (3) end products of carbohydrate digestion which can easily be absorbed





31. State function of each of the following enzymes;

a) Pancreatic amylase

b) Pancreatic lipase

c) Nuclease


a) Pancreatic amylase breakdown starch into simple sugar

b) Pancreatic lipase breakdown fats into fatty acids and glycerol

c) Nuclease breakdown nucleic acids into nucleotide

32. Name three (3) groups of hormones according to chemical nature 


Steroid hormones

Peptide hormones

Amine hormones

33. Name three (3) functions of lymph nodes





34. Differentiate between Tidal volume and Residual volume 


Tidal volume is the volume of air inspired of expired with each normal breath 

WHILE Residual volume is the volume of air remaining in the lungs after the most forceful expiration

35. Mention four (4) pulmonary capacities used in Physiology


Inspiratory capacity

Functional residual capacity

Vital capacity

Total lung capacity

36. Mention two (2) hormones stored in the posterior lobe of the Pituitary gland



Antidiuretic (Vasopressin) hormone

37. Name four (4) major types of tissue in human body


Epithelial tissue

Muscular tissue

Connective tissue

Nervous tissue

38. Define the term “Gluconeogenesis”


Gluconeogenesis is the formation of carbohydrates (glucose) from proteins and fats

39. What are the end product of glycolysis in the following situation;

a) Aerobic respiration

b) Anaerobic respiration


a) Aerobic respiration: Pyruvic acid

b) Anaerobic respiration: Lactic acid

40. What is the meaning of “Pleural effusion”?


Pleural effusion is the accumulation of fluid in the pleural space

41. Lipids include several types of chemical compounds. Mention three (3)


Neutral fat



42. State the function of erythropoietin hormone


Erythropoietin hormone stimulate the production of red blood cells

43. Mention four (4) major electrolytes in the Intracellular fluid compartment






44. Name two (2) important vitamins during formation and maturation of Red blood cells


Vitamin B9 (Folate)

Vitamin B12

45. Mention four (4) fat soluble vitamins


Vitamin A

Vitamin D

Vitamin E

Vitamin K

46. Name two (2) major periods/phases of cardiac cycle




47. Mention two major hormones involved in Calcium regulation


Parathyroid hormone

Active Vitamin D

48. State how “Pancreas is both exocrine and endocrine gland”


Pancreas is exocrine because it has duct draining pancreatic juice in the intestine

Pancreas is endocrine because it secretes hormones like Insulin direct into the blood stream

49. Enumerate three (3) fun ctions of Oxytocin hormone


Milk ejection in lactating mothers

Uterine contractions like during labour

Reduces excretion of urine (Antidiuretic effect)

50. Mention four (4) physiological effects of Thyroxine hormone on Cardiovascular system


Increase blood flow to the body tissue

Increase cardiac output

Increase heart rate

Increase heart strength

51. Define the following terms 

a) Gluconeogenesis

b) Glycogenolysis

c) Glycolysis


a)  Gluconeogenesis-Biosynthesis of new glucose from non carbohydrate sources

b) Glycogenolysis- Breakdown of Glycogen into Glucose

c) Glycolysis- Glycolysis is the sequence of reactions that converts glucose into pyruvate with the concomitant production of a relatively small amount of ATP. 

- Breakdown of glucose into Pyruvate and Energy in form of ATP

52. Mention four (4) end products of glucose metabolism


Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

Reduced Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH)

Reduced Nicotine amide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)

Carbondioxide (CO2)

Guanosine triphosphate (GTP)

53. Describe four chambers of the heart

i. The right atrium receives venous blood from the body through inferior and superior vena cava, then pumps it the right ventricle

ii. The left atrium receive oxygenated blood from pulmonary veins and pumps it to the left ventricle

iii. The right ventricle pump blood to the lungs

iv. The left ventricle pump blood through aorta to the rest of the body

54. Explain function of the heart valves

Are mechanical devices that permit the flow of blood in one direction only

55. Mention two main process involved in respiration

i. Breathing (pulmonary ventilation) 

ii.  Exchange of gases in the lungs

56. Mention at list four component of lung volume

i. Tidal volume

ii. Vital capacity

iii. Functional residual capacity

iv. Residual volume

v. Total lung capacity

vi. Inspiratory Reserve Volume

vii. Expiratory Reserve Volume

viii. Forced Expiratory Volume

57. Describe anatomic dead space 

These are first 16 generation plus trachea and upper respiratory tract that are involved only in conducting air while not involved in gaseous exchange

58. List Factors affecting the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen



Concentration of 2,3-biphosphoglycerate

59. Describe three mechanism of transportation of carbon dioxide 

i. As bicarbonate ions (HC03-) in the plasma (70%)

ii.  Some is carried in erythrocytes, loosely combined with haemoglobin as carbaminohaemoglobin (23 %)

iii. Some is dissolved in the plasma (7%)

60. List down at least four Function of Hepatocytes

i. Hepatocytes have six major functions, which are:

ii.  Bile production

iii.  Storage

iv.  Interconversion of nutrients

v.  Detoxication 

vi.  Phargocytosis 

vii.  Synthesis of blood components 

61. What is the Function of gallbladder

It stores and concentrates the bile which is secreted by the liver

62. List down at least four Composition of Bile

i. Water constitute 97.0%, in the gall bladder the amount is reduced 5 folds

ii.  Bile pigments 0.2%

iii.  Cholesterol0.06%

iv.  Inorganic salts 0.7% such as Na+, K+& Ca2+ salts Cl- HCO3- & Phosphorus

v. Fatty acids 0.15%

vi. Lecithin 0.1%

vii. Fat 0.1%

viii. Alkaline phosphatase 

ix. Proteins

63. What are the role of hydrochloric as digestion is concern

i. Decreases the pH of chyme for activation and optimum function of pepsin other functions include

ii.  It activates the enzymes pepsin and lingual lipase

iii.  It breaks up connective tissue and plant cell walls, helping to liquefy food and form chyme 

iv.  It converts ingested ferric ions (Fe3+) to ferrous Fe2+ form of iron that can be absorbed and used for haemoglobin synthesis

v. It contributes to nonspecific disease resistance by destroying ingested bacteria and other pathogens 

64. What is the function of Intrinsic factor

Protects vitamin B12 and later facilitates its absorption

65. Define Glycogenesis 

Is the process of glycogen formation which takes place in the liver

66. Define Glycogenolysis

Is the breakdown of glycogen to glucose

67. Mention at least 4 hormones involved in the carbohydrate metabolism

i. Insulin 

ii. Glucagon 

iii. Glucocorticoids 

iv. Thyroid 

v. Growth hormone 

vi. Catecholamine 

68. List down function of kidney 

i. Filtering of blood

ii. Regulation of blood pressure

iii. Regulation of blood volume

iv. Regulation of the plasma electrolytes

v. Regulation of the pH of the blood

vi. Synthesis of Vitamin D

vii. Production of Red blood cells

69. Mention two parts of nephron 

Renal corpuscle


70. Mention three stapes of urine formation

i. Filtration

ii.  Reabsorption 

iii.  Secretion

71. Mention any five endocrine gland

i. Pituitary gland

ii. Hypothalamus

iii. Thyroid gland

iv. Adrenal glands

v. Parathyroid gland

vi. Gonads 

vii. Pancreatic islets

viii. Heart 

ix. Kidney

x. Liver

72. List down function of endocrine hormone

Stimulation or inhibition of growth

Mood swings

 Induction or suppression of apoptosis (programmed cell death)

 Activation or inhibition of the immune system

 Regulation of metabolism

 Preparation of the body for mating, fighting, fleeing, and other activity

 Preparation of the body for a new phase of life, such as puberty, parenting, and menopause

Control of the reproductive cycle

Hunger cravings 

73. Explain positive feedback mechanism

The hormone's effect makes a gland produce more hormones

74. Explain negative feedback mechanism

The hormone's effect makes a gland stop making hormones

75. Give example of positive feedback mechanism

Production of oxytocin

76. List down example of anabolism hormone

Growth hormone

 Insulin-like growth factor 1 and others




77. List down example of sex steroid hormone


 Estrogens, estradiol, estrone ,estriol 

Progestagens, progesterone 

78. Mention hormone produced by anterior Pituitary Hormones

Thyroid stimulating hormone

Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)

Growth hormone

Follicle stimulating hormones (FSH) stimulates

Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates


79. Mention hormone produced by posterior Pituitary Hormones

Anti-diuretic hormone (Vasopressin)


80. Mention layers of adrenal cortex 




81. Mention hormone produced by adrenal cortex 



 Sex hormones (androgens)

82. Mention hormone produced by adrenal medulla

Adrenaline (epinephrine)

Noradrenaline (norepinephrine)

83. What is the Function of Adrenal Medulla

Increasing heart rate.

 Increasing blood pressure.

 Diverting blood to essential organs including the heart, brain and skeletal muscles by dilating their blood vessels and constricting those of less essential organs, such as the skin.

 Increasing metabolic rate.

 Dilating the pupils

84. What is the Metabolic effect of glucocorticoids



 Stimulating breakdown of protein, releasing amino acids

Anti-inflammatory actions

 Suppression of immune responses

 Delayed wound healing 

 Promoting absorption of sodium and water from renal tubules 

85. What is the function of Aldosterone

It stimulates the reabsorption of sodium by the renal tubules 

Enhance excretion of potassium (K+) in the urine

Facilitate water retention through reabsorption of sodium 

86. Mention three main types of cells in the pancreatic islets

α (alpha) cells, which secrete glucagon

 β (beta) cells, which secrete insulin

 Δ (delta) cells, which secrete somatostatin 

87. What are Effect of prostaglandin

Facilitate inflammatory response

 Potentiating pain

 Regulating blood pressure

 Blood clotting

 Uterine contraction during labour

 Cause constriction or dilation in vascular smooth muscle cells

 Cause aggregation or disaggregation of platelets

 Sensitize spinal neurons to pain 

Decrease intraocular pressure

 Regulate inflammatory mediation

 Regulate calcium movement

 Control hormone regulation

 Control cell growth

 Acts on thermoregulatory center of hypothalamus to produce fever

88. What is the effect of insulin 

Acting on cell membranes and stimulating uptake and use of glucose by muscle and connective tissue cells.

 Increasing conversion of glucose to glycogen (glycogenesis), especially in the liver and skeletal muscles. 

Accelerating uptake of amino acids by cells, and the synthesis of protein.

 Promoting synthesis of fatty acids and storage of fat in adipose tissue (lipogenesis).

 Decreasing glycogenolysis (breakdown of glycogen, into glucose).

 Preventing the breakdown of protein and fat, and gluconeogenesis

89. What ere the functions of thyroid hormone

They increase the basal metabolic rate and heat production.

 Regulating metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

 T3 and T4 are essential for normal growth and development, especially of the skeleton and nervous system

90. What are the Function of Calcitonin

It acts on bone and the kidneys to reduce the blood calcium (Ca2+) level when it is raised.

 It reduces the reabsorption of calcium from bones and inhibits reabsorption of calcium by the renal tubules.

 Its effect is opposite to that of parathyroid hormone, the hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands.

 Release of calcitonin is stimulated by an increase in the blood calcium level.

 This hormone is important during childhood when bones undergo considerable changes in size and shape

91. What are the features of Hyperthyroidism



Anxiety symptoms


Weight loss 

Heat intolerance 

92. What are Functions of the Parathyroid Gland

Regulation of serum calcium.

93. Which blood group is universal donor 

Blood group O

94. Which blood group is universal recipient 

Blood group AB

95. What is the function of blood 

Supply of oxygen to tissues (bound to haemoglobin which is carried in red cells

Supply of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids and fatty acids (dissolved in the blood or bound to plasma proteins (e.g. blood lipids)

 Removal of waste such as carbon dioxide, urea and lactic acid

 Immunological functions, including circulation of white cells, and detection of foreign material by antibodies 

Coagulation, which is one part of the body's self-repair mechanism

 Messenger functions, including the transport of hormones and the signalling of tissue damage

Regulation of body pH (the normal pH of blood is in the range of 7.35 - 7.45)

Regulation of core body temperature 

96. What is the composition of blood


 Formed elements

i. Erythrocytes (red blood cells)

ii. Leukocytes (white blood cells) 

iii.  Thrombocytes (platelets)

97. List down characteristics of life









98. List down Mechanism that Maintain Homeostasis of Body Fluid

Neural mechanism

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism

Atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH) mechanism

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) mechanism

99. What is the function of spleen



Red blood cell and platelet destruction

Blood reservoir

100. What are Stages of Cardiac Cycle

Atrial Systole: Contraction of the atria

Ventricular Systole: Contraction of the ventricles

Complete cardiac Diastole: Relaxation of atria and ventricles 

101. What are Factors affect the stroke volume

Ventricular end diastolic volume

Venous return

Strength of myocardium contraction

Blood volume 

102. Define physiology

Is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which operate within a living system.

103. Mention the levels of organization in the body

-Chemical and or molecular level

-Cell level

-Tissue level

-Organ level

-Organ system level

104. Define homeostasis 

-Is maintenance of nearly constant conditions in the inter- nal environment.

105. Define feedback mechanism 

A feedback mechanism is a process that uses the conditions of one component to regulate the function of the other.

106. Define negative feedback loops

The stimulus produces a response from the effectors that ultimately reduces the stimulus.

Example is squinting of the eyes in bright sunlight

107. Define positive feedback loops 

Positive feedback loops :stimulus produces a response which increases the stimulus. 


108. Define feed forward mechanisms

some movements of the body occur so rapidly that there is not enough time for nerve signals to travel from the peripheral parts of the body all the way to the brain and then back to the periphery again to control the movement,sensory nerve signals from the moving parts apprise the brain whether the movement is performed correctly. If not, the brain corrects the feed-forward signals that it sends to the muscles the next time the movement is required

109. Outline functions of the blood 

- Supply of oxygen to tissues (bound to haemoglobin which is carried in red cells)

- Supply of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids and fatty acids (dissolved in the blood or bound to plasma proteins (e.g. blood lipids)

- Removal of waste such as carbon dioxide, urea and lactic acid

- Immunological functions, including circulation of white cells, and detection of foreign material by antibodies

- Coagulation, which is one part of the body's self-repair mechanism

- Messenger functions, including the transport of hormones and the signalling of tissue damage

- regulation of body pH (the normal pH of blood is in the range of 7.35 - 7.45)

- Regulation of core body temperature 

110. Mention constituents of plasma 

The organic components of plasma include: proteins , lipids, carbohydrates 

The main (inorganic) mineral components :

Cations : Anions : 

Sodium (Na+), Chlorides(Cl⁻)

Potassium (K+), Phosphates (PO4⁻) 

Calcium (Ca++), Bicarbonates(HCO3⁻)

Magnesium (Mg++) 

111. Mention functions of plasma


Regulation of oncotic pressure

 Regulation of pH 


Fibrinogen - Blood clotting (haemostasis)

112. Mention types of blood groups

A, O, B, AB.

113. Outline functions of red blood cells

The major function of these cells is a transport of haemoglobin, which in turn carries oxygen from lungs to the issues

114. Mention white blood cells differentials and state functions for each


Neutrophils defend against bacterial or fungal infection and other very small inflammatory processes that are usually first responders to microbial infection; their activity and death in large numbers forms pus. 


 Eosinophils primarily deal with parasitic infections and an increase in them may indicate such. 

They are also the predominant inflammatory cells in allergic reactions. 

Basophils are chiefly responsible for allergic and antigen response by releasing the chemical histamine causing inflammation. 


They have the kidney shaped nucleus and are typically agranulated. 

They also possess abundant cytoplasm.

Monocytes share the ‘vacuum cleaner’ (phagocytosis) function of neutrophils, but are much longer lived as they have an additional role: they present pieces of pathogens to T cells so that the pathogens may be recognized again and killed, or so that an antibody response may be mounted. 


Once monocytes move from the bloodstream out into the body tissues, they undergo changes (differentiate) allowing phagocytosis and are then known as macrophages.


The blood has three types of lymphocytes. 

o B cells; which make antibodies that bind to pathogens to enable their destruction.

o T cells; these include CD4+ (helper) T cells co-ordinate the immune response (they are what become defective in an HIV infection). 

o CD8+ (cytotoxic) are able to kill virus-infected and tumor cells. 

o T cells are crucial to the immune response because they possess a unique 'memory' system which allows them to remember past invaders and prevent disease when a similar invader is encountered again. 

o Natural Killer Cells (NK cells). 

o Natural killer cells are able to kill cells of the body that are infected by a virus or have become cancerous.


They play an important role in controlling blood loss by forming platelets plugs which seal holes in small vessels. 

115. Mention clinical importance of white blood cells differentials

116. Mention function of platelets

The main function of platelets is the maintenance of hemostasis. 

117. Mention functions of a spleen

- Site of lymphocyte proliferation

- Immune surveillance and response

- Cleanses the blood: extracts aged and defective blood cells and platelets. Macrophages remove debris and foreign matter from blood flowing through its sinuses

118. Outline 5 constituents of body fluid compartments

i. Sodium

ii. Potassium

iii. Calcium

iv. Magnesium

v. Chloride

vi. Phophate

vii. Sulphate

viii. Glucose

ix. Amino acids

x. Fatty acids

xi. Hormones

xii. Enzymes

119. Mention 5 differences between ECF and ICF


Most abundant cation - Na+,

muscle contraction 

Impulse transmission

fluid and electrolyte balance

Most abundant anion - Cl- 

Regulates osmotic pressure

Forms HCl in gastric acid Most abundant cation - K+

Resting membrane potential

Action potentials 

Maintains intracellular volume

Regulation of pH

 Anion are proteins and phosphates (HPO42-)

120. Mention the constituent of lymph of the lymphatic system 

Lymph is a clear, colourless liquid with a composition similar to blood plasma. It is nothing but the clear, watery blood plasma leaked out through the capillary walls to flow around the cells. It contains oxygen, proteins, glucose and white blood cells.

121. Mention the functions of the lymphatic system

a. Transport clean fluids back to the blood

b. Drains excess fluids from tissues

c. Removes “debris” from cells of body

d. It absorbs and transports fat and fat soluble vitamins from the intestine.

e. Kill the micro-organism.

122. Mention components of the respiratory tract

- nose and nasal cavity 

- pharynx

- bronchus

- alveoli

-  bronchioles 

- Trachea

- larynx

123. Mention and define the type of cellular respiration

124. Outline the constituents of saliva

- water, mucus, various mineral electrolytes, and digestive enzymes including amylase, which begins the breakdown of food starches.

125. Mention functions of saliva

- Bolus formation

- digestion of carbohydrates; amylase

- anti bacterial, antifungal and antiviral

- taste;gustin

- lubrication: mucin

- reminalization of teeth

126. Outline constituents of gastric juice

- Pepsin (the proteolytic enzyme), 

- mucin, 

- intrinsic factor,

- gastric rennin, and other gastric enzymes( lysozyme ,carbonic anhydrase ,etc

- Free hydrochloric acid, l

- actic acid and other fermenting acid, sulphates, chlorides, phosphates of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, bicarbonates

127. Mention functions of gastric juice

- Pepsin converts proteins into simpler, more easily absorbed substances; it is aided in this by hydrochloric acid, which provides the acid environment in which pepsin is most effective. 

- Role of HCl

- – Acid sterilization

- – Activation of pepsinogen

- – Promotion of secretin secretion

- – Assisted effect of iron and calcium absorption .

- Rennin aids the digestion of milk proteins.

-  Mucus secreted by the gastric glands helps protect the stomach lining from the action of gastric juice and aids in lubrication of the mucosal surface.

-  Intrinsic factor is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12


128. Mention gastric enzymes

- Pepsin

- Rennin

- lysozyme ,carbonic anhydrase

129. Outline constituents of intestinal juices

- It contains 98.5% water and 1.5% solids.

- Inorganic constituents

- Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium with chloride,bicarbonate and phosphate.

- Organic constituents

- Enterokinase- activator of trypsinogen .

- Erepsin 

- Nuclease, nucleotidase , nucleosidase.

- Arginase-acts on arginine producing urea and ornithine .

- Amylase , sucrase, maltase, lactase, and isomaltase .

- Also contain mucus which in combination with bicarbonates provides alkaline medium and prevents intestinal mucosa from acid. 

130. Mention functions of small intestine enzymes

a. Disacccharidases (sucrase, maltase, and lactase) which break disaccharides (sucrose, maltose and lactose) down to monosaccharides (glucose, fructose & galactose)

b. Peptidases, which hydrolyse the peptide bonds between small amino acid chains

c. Nucleases, which break down nucleic acids 

d. Intestinal lipase which splits fats into fatty acids and glycerol

131. Outline the functions of the hepatocytes.

- metabolic function :carbohydrate metabolism

- storage function: glycogen,copper iron

- excretion and secretion:bile

- protection:kupfer cells

- coagulative function:production of coagulation function:fibrinogen I ,prothrombin II,factor V,VII etc

132. Outline functions of pancreatic secretions

- The enzymes found in pancreatic juice break down all of the major nutrients, including carbohydrates, proteins and fats. 

-  Bicarbonate is useful in neutralizing the acidic gastric acid, allowing for effective enzymic action(ensuring pH Optimum)

o Proteolytic enzymes the; Trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase 

o They are secreted in their inactive forms as trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, and procarboxypeptidase 

If were produced in active form they would digest the tissues producing them 

Within the pancreas, enzyme activation is prevented by an antiproteolytic enzyme secreted by the acinar cells

Are enzymes essential for proteins digest and polypeptides

Duodenal enzyme, enterokinase, converts trypsinogen to trypsin 

Trypsin, in turn, activates chymotrypsin, elastase, carboxypeptidase, and phospholipase 

133. Define endocrinology

is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones. It is also concerned with the integration of developmental events proliferation, growth, and differentiation, and the psychological or behavioral activities of metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sleep,digestion,

respiration, excretion, mood, stress, lactation, movement, reproduction, and sensory perception caused by hormones

134. Mention the importance of endocrine system

- The endocrine system, like the nervous system, adjusts and correlates the activities of the various body systems, making them appropriate to the changing demands of the external and internal environment. 

- Endocrine integration is brought about by chemical signals secreted by ductless glands and transported in the circulation to target cells. 

- The hormones regulate metabolic processes. 

- The term metabolism, literally meaning change, is used to refer to all the chemical and energy transformations that occur in the body.

- The animal organism oxidizes carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, producing principally CO2, H2O, and the energy necessary for life processes. CO2, H2O, and energy are also produced when food is burned outside the body.

- In the body, oxidation is not a one-step, semiexplosive reaction but a complex, slow, stepwise process called catabolism, which liberates energy in small, usable amounts. Energy can be stored in the body in the form of special energy-rich phosphate compounds and in the form of proteins, fats, and complex carbohydrates synthesized from simpler molecules. 

135. Mention 2 Functions of hypothalamus

- Thermoregulation

- Control pituitary functions

136. Mention 2 parts of pituitary gland

-posterior pituitary

- anterior pituitary gland

137. Mention hormones produced by the anterior pituitary gland

-FSH,LH,prolactin,ACTH,growth hormone.

138. Mention hormones produced by the posterior Pituitary gland 

-ADH and oxytocin

139. Mention function of FSH and LH


- Stimulates structure within the ovaries, primary follicle, to grow toward maturity.

- Each follicle contains a developing egg cell (ovum), which is released from the ovary during ovulation.

- FSH stimulate the follicle to synthesize and secrete estrogen (female sex hormones Oestrogen and Progesterone) in the male, FSH stimulates the development of the seminiferous tubules of the testes and maintains spermatogenesis (sperm production) by them.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

Stimulates the formation and activity of the corpus luteum of the ovary. 

The corpus luteum (meaning yellow body) is the tissue left behind when a follicle ruptures to release its egg during ovulation.

The corpus luteum secretes progesterone and estrogeus when stimulated by LH.

140. Mention function of growth hormone

- It stimulates growth and division of most body cells especially that of bones and skeletal muscles.

- It also regulates metabolism in many organs example, stimulates protein synthesis and break down of fats.

- Stimulate growth by stimulating the liver to produce certain growth factors, which in turn accelerate amino acid transport into cells. 

141. Mention function of ADH 

The main effect of ADH is to regulate fluid balance in the body by reducing the urine output, for instance during thirsty, hypotension and when there is high plasma osmolarity and during stress.

142. Mention function of ACTH

- This increases the concentration of cholesterol and steroids within the adrenal cortex and the output of steroid hormones, especially cortisol. 

143. Mention function of oxytocin

- Oxytocin also stimulates contractions of the milk ducts in the breast, which move milk to the nipple (the let-down) in lactating women. 

- uterine contractions stimulate the release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary, which, in turn, increases uterine contractions. 

144. Mention function of prolactin

- It initiates milk secretion (lactation). 

145. Functions of hormones produced by the thyroid gland 

Increase metabolic activities.

146. Functions of hormones produced by the parathyroid gland.

Calcium balance

147. Mention hormones produced by the adrenal gland.




148. Mention functions of adrenaline hormone

-flight and fright

149. Mention functions of aldosterone hormone

-Salt balance

150. Mention functions of cortisol

it functions to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis, to suppress the immune system, and to aid in the metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrates.[2 It also decreases bone formation.

151. Mention 3 functions of the kidney

- regulating acid-base balance, electrolyte concentrations, extracellular fluid volume, and blood pressure

152. Mention 5 parts of the nephron

Glomerulus, Efferent arteriole, Bowman's capsule, Proximal convoluted tubule, Cortical collecting duct,. Distal convoluted tubule, Loop of Henle, 

153. Function of loop of Henle

- the loop of Henle's main function is to create a concentration gradient in the medulla of the kidney.By means of a countercurrent multiplier system, which utilizes electrolyte pumps, the loop of Henle creates an area of high urea concentration deep in the medulla, near the papillary duct in the collecting duct system

154. Mention functions of glomerulus

Ultra filtration

155. Why are protein molecules not filtrated in the glomerulus?

Because of higher molecular weight

156. Briefly Explain filtration process 

Filtration is movement of fluids across the filtration membrane into the lumen of Bowman’s capsule as results of pressure difference 

The fluid entering the nephron is called the filtrate 

The filtrate in the glomerolus is similar to plasma with the exception of plasma protein Filtration takes place through the semi permeable walls of the glomerulus and glomerular capsule 

The formation of filtrate depend on a pressure gradient, called the filtration pressure, which forces fluid from the glomerular capillary across the filtration membrane into the lumen of Bowman’s capsule

157. Briefly Explain secretion 

Selective reabsorption takes place in the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney 

It is the process by which certain substances that are required by the body (such as glucose, amino acids, vitamins and water) that have been filtered out of the blood during ultrafiltration, are reabsorbed. As only certain substances are reabsorbed, it is known as selective reabsorption

In this way, many useful solutes (primarily glucose and amino acids), salts and water that have passed in the proximal tubule through the Bowman's capsule, return in the circulation

These solutes are reabsorbed isotonically, in that the osmotic potential of the fluid leaving the proximal tubule is the same as that of the initial glomerular filtrate 

However, glucose, amino acids, inorganic phosphate, and some other solutes are reabsorbed via secondary active transport through cotransport channels driven by the sodium gradient out of the nephron

158. Briefly explain tubular reabsorption 

As the glomerular filtrate enters the renal tubules, it flows sequentially through the successive parts of the tubule-the proximal tubule, the loop of Henle, the distal tubule, the collecting tubule, and, finally, the collecting duct-before it is excreted as urine

Along this course, some substances are selectively reabsorbed from the tubules back into the blood, whereas others are secreted from the blood into the tubular lumen 

Eventually, the urine that is formed and all the substances in the urine represent the sum of three basic renal processes-glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion-as follows:

o Some substances are removed from blood through the peritubular capillary network into the distal convoluted tubule or collecting duct, by secretion mechanism 

o These substances are Hydrogen ions, creatinine, and drugs 

o Substances which are not reabsorbed after glomerular filtration and those secreted into the tubules forms the components of Urine 

o For many substances, reabsorption plays a much more important role than does secretion in determining the final urinary excretion rate

Secretion accounts for significant amounts of potassium ions, hydrogen ions, and a few other substances that appear in the urine

159. Define the terms metabolism, catabolism and anabolism 

160. Define carbohydrate metabolism

Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown and interconversion of carbohydrates in livingorganisms.

161. identify types of carbohydrates metabolism

Glycolysis - the oxidation metabolism of glucose molecules to obtain ATP and pyruvate Pyruvate from glycolysis enters the Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle, in aerobic organisms after moving through pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Pentose phosphate pathway, which acts in the conversion of hexoses into pentoses and in NADPH regeneration. NADPH is an essential antioxidant in cells which prevents oxidative damage and acts as precursor for production of many biomolecules.

Glycogenesis - the conversion of excess glucose into glycogen as a cellular storage mechanism; this prevents excessive osmotic pressure buildup inside the cell

Glycogenolysis - the breakdown of glycogen into glucose, which provides a glucose supply for glucose-dependent tissues.

Gluconeogenesis - de novo synthesis of glucose molecules from simple organic compounds. Anexample in humans is the conversion of a few amino acids in cellular protein to glucose.

162. why is ATP used in glycolysis process

This reaction consumes ATP, but it acts to keep the glucose concentration low, promoting continuous transport of glucose into the cell through the plasma membrane transporters. In addition, it blocks the glucose from leaking out – the cell lacks transporters for G6P, and free diffusion out of the cell is prevented due to the charged nature of G6P. Glucose may alternatively be formed from the phosphorolysis or hydrolysis of intracellular starch or glycogen.

163. mention hormones produced by the pancreas


164. mention functions of insulin and glucagon

glucose balance

165. mention the cells that produce insulin, glucagon and somatostatin

Alpha cells producing glucagon (20% of total islet cells)

Beta cells producing insulin and amylin (≈70%)

Delta cells producing somatostatin (

166. Define protein metabolism 

Protein metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the synthesis of proteins and amino acids, and the breakdown of proteins (and other large molecules) by catabolism.

167. Outline the nitrogen cycle 

The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into various chemical forms as it circulates among the atmosphere, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems. The conversion of nitrogen can be carried out through both biological and physical processes. Important processes in the nitrogen cycle include fixation, ammonification, nitrification, and denitrification

168. Describe the basic structure of amino acids 

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

169. Mention 5 enzymes involved in the digestion of proteins

-rennin, erepsin, pepsin, peptidases, trypsin

170. Mention 5 enzymes involved in the digestion of carbohydrates


- Define transamination

Transamination, a chemical reaction that transfers an amino group to a ketoacid to form new amino acids. This pathway is responsible for the deamination of most amino acids. This is one of the major degradation pathways which convert essential amino acids to nonessential amino acids (amino acids that can be synthesized de novo by the organism).

171. Define deamination

Deamination is the removal of an amino group from a molecule. Enzymes that catalyse this reaction are called deaminases.In the human body, deamination takes place primarily in the liver, however glutamate is also deaminated in the kidneys. In situations of excess protein intake, deamination is used to break down amino acids for energy. The amino group is removed from the amino acid and converted to ammonia.

172. Outline water- soluble vitamins

Vit B and Vit C

173. Outline lipid-soluble vitamins 

A,D,E and K

174. Mention roles of vitamin A in human metabolic processes 

Vision, maintenance of epithelial tissue, mucous secretion, growth (formation of bones, teeth), reproduction, and immunity 

175. Mention roles of vitamin B1 in human metabolic processes

Utilized in carbohydrate/protein metabolism for energy release. Contributes to body’s supply of niacin (another B vitamin) by facilitating in the conversion of tryptophan (an amino acid) to niacin.

176. Mention roles of vitamin B12 in human metabolic processes 

Synthesis of the thymine nucleotides of DNA (along with folic acid) and therefore in the synthesis of red blood cells. Metabolism of fatty acids, hence in the formation of myelin (the sheathing around the axons of nerve cells). Carbohydrate metabolism (stabilizes glutathione – a component of enzymes needed in carbohydrate metabolism)

177. Mention roles of vitamin B6 in human metabolic processes 

Synthesis and breakdown of amino acids (hence important in protein metabolism). Conversion of glycogen in liver and muscle tissue to glucose (hence maintenance of blood glucose levels). Reaction that produces a heme precursor, necessary for formation of haemoglobin. Conversion of amino acid tryptophan to niacin.

178. Mention roles of vitamin B3 in human metabolic processes 

- Utilized in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism.

179. Mention roles of folate and folic acid in human metabolic processes

- Metabolism of amino acids (conversion of histidine to glutamic acid). Synthesis of thymine (a distinctive component of DNA) and therefore in the formation of red blood cells

180. Mention roles of vitamin C in human metabolic processes

- Involved in the formation of collagen (major component of connective tissues). Prevents scurvy/enhances wound healing. Enhances absorption of non-haem iron in foods of plant origin (hence important in anaemia prevention). Is an antioxidant (prevents the harmful action of free radicals).

181. Mention roles of vitamin D in human metabolic processes

- Absorption and metabolism of calcium (hence formation of bones, teeth)

182. Mention roles of vitamin E in human metabolic processes 

- An antioxidant, reproduction (enhances fertility), and role in haemoglobin synthesis

183. Mention roles of vitamin K in human metabolic processes

- Blood coagulation (takes part in synthesis of clotting factor ‘prothrombin’)

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