HEALTH PROMOTIONS ORAL COMPLEX QUESTIONS | DOWNLOAD QUESTIONS

 


  1. Define Health promotion

Health promotion (HP) is defined as the process of enabling people to improve and increase control over their health. HP action involves helping people to develop personal skills, creating supportive environments, strengthening communities and influencing governments to enact health public policies.

  • Mention five(4) examples of health promotion activities
  1. Water and sanitation activities
  2. Nutrition program for a community
  3. Infection prevention activities such immunization
  4. Awareness campaign on HIV testing
  5. What is the goal of health promotion

Health Promotion aims to strengthen the skills and capabilities of individuals and groups so that they can take actions to change social, environmental, and economic conditions to improve public and individual health.

  • Mention five (5) objectives of health promotion
  1. Prevent disease (preventive and early medical treatment) and early medical treatment
  2. Prevent complications of diseases
  3. Ensure that people are well-informed and able to make healthy choices.
  4. Help people acquire the skills and confidence to take greater control over their health
  5. Change policies and environments to facilitate healthy choices
  • Mention three main strategies used in the implementation of health promotion
  1. Enabling
  2. Creating environments that are supportive of health
  3. Advocacy to create the essential conditions for health
  • Mention five (5) principles of Health Promotion
  1. Empowerment for health
  2. Participatory
  3. Inter-sectoral
  4. Sustainable
  5. Multi-strategy
  6. Holistic
  7. What is the Aim of Health Promotion Approaches

All approaches of health promotion aim to promote good health and to prevent or reduce the effects of ill health.

  • Mention five (5) Health Promotion Approaches
    • Preventive Approach
    • Behavior Change Approach
    • Self Empowerment Approach- Educational
    • Self Empowerment Approach- Educational
    • Community Development Approach or Social Change Approach
    • The Ecological Approach
  • Mention five (5) pillars of health promotions according to  WHO
  1. Build healthy public policy, 
  2. Create supportive environments,
  3.  Strengthen community actions,
  4. Develop personal skills, and
  5. Reorient health services
  1.  Mention five (5) diseases of public health importance in Tanzania
  1. Rabies
  2. Cholera
  3. Acute flaccid paralysis
  4. Measles
  5. Typhoid
  6. Meningitis
  7. Dysentery
  8. Malaria
  1. What are the benefits of understanding the diseases of public health importance?
  1. Be creative whenever these diseases occur
  2. Inform the administration – communication
  3. Be able to adjust and use available resources
  4. Be prepared to respond quickly
  5. Understand the preventing/controlling measures
  6. Reduce/prevent spread of the disease
  1.  Mention four (4) resources for  prevention and control of diseases of public health importance
  1. Human
  2. Finance
  3. Time
  4. Space and Infrastructure
  1. Mention five(5) points considered by health planners when conducting assessments to find out the community needs
  2. What is a problem(s)
  3. What is the extent
  4. Who, when, how, (why if possible) – is the problem affecting
  5. Other problem(s) and their extents
  6. What is currently done
  7. Who are responsible with the capacity available
  8. Other opportunities
  9. Threats
  1.  Mention five (5) stakeholders involved in  integrated community health services
  2. Community members
  3. Community leaders
  4. Health facility staff
  5. Health facility clients
  6. Community health workers
  7. Local government/councils
  8. Ministry of Health (MOHCDGEC)
  9. Other ministries e.g. Ministry of Work, Education etc
  10. Non-governmental organizations – NGOs
  11. Other funding organizations e.g. International, national and local interested
  1.   Mention five (5) key steps followed in planning community health intervention
  2. Conduct assessments to find out needs
  3. Identify priority area and problem definition
  4. Solutions identification and Strategies to be used
  5. Activities for each strategy
  6. Monitoring and evaluation plan
  7. Implementation
  8. Final Evaluation
  1.  Mention five (5) examples of participatory learning by considering Self Empowerment Approach
  2. Group work
  3. Counseling
  4. Training
  5. Storytelling
  6. Educational drama
  1.  What is the aim of   Preventive Approach in health promotion?

Preventive Approach aims to reduce premature deaths (mortality) and avoidable diseases (morbidity).

  1.  What do you understand by Public Health

Public Health is the process of promoting health, the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and improving quality of life through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals

  1. What do you understand by Diseases of Public Health Importance

Diseases of Public Health Importance refers to a communicable disease that may pose a public health emergency of international concern according to the World Health Organization’s International Health Regulations

or

Any quarantinable, communicable disease specified

  • What do you understand by Rare Diseases of Public Health Importance

Rare diseases of public health significance are defined as diseases or conditions of general public health concern not listed elsewhere which are not commonly diagnosed

  • What do you understand by Community health intervention?

Community health intervention is a specific activity intending to bring about a required outcome in a particular population using common strategy in a group of people, often living in a defined geographical area who share common culture, values and norms, and arranged in a social structure according to relationship which the group has developed over a period

  •  What do you understand by Integrated community health intervention

Integrated community health intervention is specific activity intending to bring about a required outcome in a particular population using common strategy in a group of people, often living in a defined geographical area who share common culture, values and norms, and arranged in a social structure according to relationship which the group has developed over a period incorporated into other health services/interventions

  •  Define Intervention plan

Intervention plan is a  roadmap for your activities that facilitates your program’s/project’s systematic implementation to bring about an intended outcome/change in a particular target population

  •  Mention at least three (3) Activities of Monitoring and evaluation plan
  • Decide on important activities to be monitored
  • Agree on indicators
  • Set targets for each indicator
  • Prepare and Agree on tools to be used to collect the information
  • Agree on format of the M&E report
  • Agree on frequency of reporting e.g. weekly, monthly, quarterly, every six months or annually
  • Agree on reporting channel  (levels or stakeholders to report or receive the report)
  •  Mention at least 3 activities to be done during Implementation of health intervention
  • Agree on when to start implementation
  • Agree on when to complete implementation
  • Agree on dates for conducting each activity – those which are for short time, life time of project/program
  • Each activity should have responsible person to implement
  • Monitoring and Evaluation should have responsible person
  •  List 3 activities to be done during Final Evaluation and Dissemination
  • Evaluation study to find out if the intervention(s) has worked
  • Commonly done at the end of the project/program
  • If a program is implemented for years e.g. 5, evaluation can be done 2-3 years as midterm evaluation/review
  • Plan how to use the finding including disseminating beyond the initial stakeholders
  •  Define Health education

Health education is a process which informs, motivate and helps people to adopt and maintain healthy practices and life styles.

  • What do you understand by Planning in health promotion

Planning is an anticipatory decision making about what needs to be done , how it has to be done, and with what resources.

  • Mention steps of planning health education and intervention.
  • Step 1: Analysis
  • Step 2: Identify problem and priotize
  • Step 3: Setting objectives
  • Step 4: develop plan for work
  • Step 5: implement action
  • Step 6: evaluation
  •  Mention five (5)  criteria of  problem priotization in health promotion intervention
  1. Magnitude of the problem
  2.  Severity of the problem
  3.  Feasibility
  4.  Government concern
  5.  Community concern
  •  For the success of health intervention, its objectives should be SMART. What does SMART stand for?

S – Specific; simple relates to specific events

M – Measurable, has an indicator which is measurable

A- Achievable; considering resources at hand

– realistic; relevant- can reduce or solve a problem relevant to community

T – time bound; can be accomplished in a specific period of time.

  •  Mention at least five (5) Needs for health education session
  • Health personnel (Educator)
  • Key problems
  • Targeted audience/population (recipients)
  • Message(Subject):
  • Time
  • Venue/ place
  • Methods of education
  • Other needs are fund, infrastructures etc.
  •  Giving an example, mention what the audience for health education session depends upon.

Audience for health education session depends on the type of health education session conducted

For example; if the health education is preventing malaria to under five years children; audiences are women at child bearing age, lactating mothers, mothers with children at that particular age.

  •  Mention at least (5) elements to consider when Preparing a health education schedule
  1. A health education schedule comprises of the following
  2. Days/weeks
  3. Time and date
  4. Activities; learners and educator’s
  5. Facilitator/ educator
  6. Learner characteristics
  7. Venue/ place
  8. Evaluation
  • Give an example of Audio aids, visual aids and audio-visual aids as materials used in providing health education session
  1. Audio aids; megaphones, tape recorders, gramophones, amplifiers, radios
  2. Visual aids; films, slides, overhead projectors, video cassetes, black boards, posters, photographs, charts etc.
  3. Combination of audio-visual aids ; televisions, multimedia computers, cinemas etc.
  •  What do you understand by Soil as used in health education

Soil is defined as the people to whom health education is given

  • Define Seed as sued in health promotion education

Seed is defined as health facts to be given

  • What do you understand by the word sower as used in health promotion education

Sower is defined as the media to transmit the facts

  •  Mention the steps to be followed during evaluation of health education session
  1. Involve people to participate in the activities
  2. Describe the activities to be evaluated
  3. Select method to evaluate
  4. Collect credible data
  5. Analyze the data
  6. Learn from evaluation.
  •  Mention three (3) effective communication skills used in providing health education
  1. Listening skills
  2. Observing skills
  3. Ask / questioning skills
  • Define Key Populations (KPs)

KPs are defined within the World Health Organization (WHO) Global health sector strategy on HIV/AIDS 2011-2015 to include both vulnerable and populations who have higher risk for HIV.

  •  What is the difference between People who use drugs (PWUD) and People who Inject Drugs (PWID) in health promotion intervention to key population?

PWUD are those that consume psychoactive drugs, and often, even more specifically, illicit drugs, or other drugs of which there is non-medical use.

WHILE

PWID are those who have injected drugs at any time within the past 12  months

  •   Mention five (5) activities of the comprehensive package of services for key populations  
  1. Offering care and treatment services
  2. Counseling and testing
  3. PMTCT
  4.  Community based interventions
  5. Information Change Communication  
  • Mention what is usually done when managing the common infections, co-infections and co-morbidities among key populations
    • Management of symptomatic STI/RTIs
    • Screening for asymptomatic STI
    • Prevention, diagnosis and treatment for viral Hepatitis
    • Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of Tuberculosis
  • List at least five programs or interventions that commonly  provide health education services in health facilities
    • Maternal, Newborn and Child Health
    • HIV/AIDS
    • Immunization
    • Family Planning
    • Malaria
  •  Mention five (5) groups of people included in key population
  1. People who use drugs (PWUD)
  2. People who Inject Drugs (PWID)
  3. Sex Workers
  4. Men who have sex with men
  5. Transgender people
  6. Prisoners
  • Define School Health Program
  • An organized set of policies, procedures and activities designed to protect and promote the health and well-being of students and staff which has traditionally included health services, health school environment and health education. It should also include, but not be limited to physical education; food and nutrition services; counseling, psychological and social services; health promotion for staff; and family/community involvement.
  • Identify common conditions/diseases addressed in school health program

a) Infectious Disease

b) Helminth Infections

c) Malaria

d) Acute Respiratory Infection

e) Malnutrition and Noninfectious Disease.

f) Short-Term Hunger

g) Micronutrient Deficiency

  • Mention three (3) media used for communicating health messages
  • Traditional media
  • Printed media
  • Mass media
  • Mention three (3) criteria for selecting communication media 
  • Literacy level of target community
  • Cost of media
  • People access to media
  • Cultural issues
  • Nature of message to be communicated
  • Expertise in using a particular media

Mention five (5) activities of the comprehensive package of services for key populations (5 marks)


Offering care and treatment services,
Counseling and testing,
PMTCT,
 Community based interventions
Information Change Communication

2.Mention five (5 ) guidelines which address the components of the comprehensive school health program (5 marks)
School Environment;
 Health Education;
Health Services;
Physical Education;
Counseling, Guidance And Mental Health;
School Food And Nutrition Services;
Worksite Health Promotion;
And integration of school and community health activities.
3.Mention five (5) steps to be followed during evaluation of health education session (5 Marks)
Involve people to participate in the activities
Describe the activities to be evaluated
Select method to evaluate
Collect credible data
Analyze the data
Learn from evaluation.

4.Outline five (5) criteria used in problems prioritization during health promotion intervention (5 marks)
Magnitude of the problem
Severity of the problem
Feasibility
Government concern
Community concern
5.List down five (5) goals of a comprehensive approach of school health intervention ( 5 marks)
Promote health and wellness.
Prevent specific diseases, disorders and injury.
Prevent high risk social behaviors.
Intervene to assist children and youth who are in need or at risk.
Help support those who are already exhibiting special health care needs.
Promote positive health and safety behaviors.

6.Mention five (5) programs or interventions that commonly provide health education services in health facilities (5 marks)
Maternal, Newborn and Child Health
HIV/AIDS
Immunization
Family Planning
Malaria



7.List at least down five (5) diseases of public health importance in Tanzania( 5 marks)
Rabies
Cholera
Acute flaccid paralysis
Measles
Typhoid
Meningitis
Dysentery
Malaria
8.Mention 5 pillars of health promotions according to WHO.  (5 marks)
Build healthy public agency
Create supportive environments
Strengthen community actions
Development personal skill and
Reorient health services

SECTION E: ESSAY QUESTIONS (30 marks)
INSTRUCTIONS
This section consists of two (2) questions which are supposed to be answered in a narrative way
Answer both questions.
Each question must start on a new page

1. For the Health Care Provider heading the health education to individuals or group of people there are materials and resources to consider so as having a successful health education session. Explain 5 needs for health education session (15 marks)
(any 5 points mentioned and explained @ 3 Marks)
Health personnel (Educator): Should have good personal qualities for a health education to take place and the transmission of knowledge, skills and improving health behaviors of individuals , health personnel must be involved as the main participant of the session such health workers like nurses, medical doctors, community nurses etc.
Key problems: The health providers have to know what health problems or unhealthy behaviors that the community faces and practices, so that it makes easy for the health workers to create a topic concerning that problem a aim at providing health education to a particular community.
Targeted audience/population (recipients): These are the main participants in the receiving health education and improving health status of their community or individually, Audiences are the ones to be taught on how to maintain health behaviors and main participants in the health education session.
 Message (Subject): the subject rises from the key problems, this is the main agenda of the conduction of health education, expert health worker have to take control of the subject for the audience to understand and ask for more clarification.
Time: there should be a specific time for the health education to start, so as the participants gather towards the chosen venue on time.
Venue/ place: Knowing where exactly the health education session will take place is very important for the participants to gather and allocate newcomers.
Methods of education: how message of education reaches the recipients.
Other needs are fund, infrastructures etc.



2.All approaches of health promotion aim to promote good health and to prevent or reduce the effects of ill health.
Describe 6 health Promotion Approaches (15 Marks)
Introduction- 2 marks
All approaches aim to promote good health and to prevent or reduce the effects of ill health.
Body- mark six points@ 2 marks


1.Preventive Approach
This approach aims to reduce premature deaths (mortality) and avoidable diseases (morbidity). It has three levels:
Primary prevention
Prevention of disease onset, example: immunizations
Secondary prevention
Prevention of the progression of disease, example: screening and other methods of early diagnosis and treatment
Tertiary Prevention
Reducing further disability or preventing the recurrence of illness


2. Behavior Change Approach
This approach aims to bring about change in individual behavior through changes in individuals’ knowledge. Also known as the ‘information-giving model’.
It is usually implemented through provision of information related to health risks through the mass media, leaflets or posters.
In this approach HP is really synonymous with health education that aims to increase individual’s knowledge about the causes of health and illness.
An example is giving information to clients about the effects of smoking and helping them to explore their own values and attitudes and come to a decision.
3.Self Empowerment Approach- Educational
The goal of this approach is to empower individuals to make healthy choices.
Self-empowerment can be defined as the process by which groups and individuals increase their control over their physical, social and internal environments.


4.Community Development Approach or Social Change Approach
Poor infrastructure at rural communities, including lack of; safe water, food, education, good shelter, and access to health services, as well as poverty, leads to poor health and can results in premature death.
This approach focuses on influencing health policy.
Aims to bring about physical, social, economic, political, and environmental changes to promote or enhance health
Improving the socio-economic environment through policy can improve the health of the individual and community. In this, individuals organize and act collectively in order to change their physical and social environments.
The key characteristic of this approach is that it begins from the experiences and perspectives of communities


5.The Ecological Approach
View health as a product of the interdependence between the individual and subsystems of the ecosystem (e.g. family, community, culture, and the physical and social environment).
To promote health, an ecosystem must offer economic and social conditions conducive to health and healthful lifestyles.
These environments must also provide information and life skills that enable individuals to engage in healthful behaviors.
Finally, healthful options among goods and services must be available. In an ecological context, all such elements are viewed as determinants of health. They also provide support in helping individuals modify their behaviors and reduce their exposure to risk factors.
Education may lead to behaviour change and health promotion. It seeks to provide knowledge and information, and to develop the necessary skills so that people can make informed decisions about their behaviour.
It is strongly linked to health education.
In order to facilitate self-empowerment, participatory learning techniques allow people to examine their own values and beliefs and explore the extent to which factors such as past socialization and social location affects the choices they make.
Examples of participatory learning include group work, counseling, training, storytelling and educational drama.


6. Community Development Approach or Social Change Approach
Poor infrastructure at rural communities, including lack of; safe water, food, education, good shelter, and access to health services, as well as poverty, leads to poor health and can results in premature death.
This approach focuses on influencing health policy.
Aims to bring about physical, social, economic, political, and environmental changes to promote or enhance health
Improving the socio-economic environment through policy can improve the health of the individual and community. In this, individuals organize and act collectively in order to change their physical and social environments.



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