1. Differentiate Endoparasites from Ectoparasites

2. Give four classes of HIV drugs

3. Differentiate Arboviruses from Enteroviruses

4. Explain the life cycle of Entamoeba histolyica

5. Describe the structure of gram negative bacteria

6. Differentiate between bacterial cell and viral cell.

7. Briefly give the advantages of microbiology in medical perspectives

8. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of normal microbial flora

9. Explain why feotus is not a parasite?

10. What do you understand by biochemical test in bacteriology?

11. Discuss the life cycle of malaria parasites

12. Why is it necessary to study medical entomology?

13. Discuss the structure of HIV

14. Explain the replicative life cycle of HIV virus

15. Give the difference between HIV-1 and HIV-2

16. Discuss the etiology, pathogenesis , complication and prevention of HIV/AIDS

17. What do you understand by ‘recrudescence’ as described in malaria parasite.?

18. Discuss the complication of malaria in human body.


19. What do you understand by “sequestration of malaria parasites” ?

20. Discuss the life cycle of Strongloides stercolaris .

21. With examples, Mention five (5) groups of human fungal infections or mycoses according to the level and mode of entry into the host.

22. Mention Three (3) drugs of choice in oral candidiasis

23. Mention two (2) diseases caused by spirochaetes

24. Mention four (4) examples of gram negative rods (GNR) of medical importance

25. Mention the two (2) drugs of choice for diseases caused by Mycobacteria tuberculae

26. Mention the vectors of medical importance

27. Explain the four (4) types of parasites

28. Mention diseases caused by Entamoeba histolytica

29. Give an example of catalase positive , gram positive cocci bacteria that commonly cause Urinary tract infection (UTI)

30. Differentiate between a negative sense viral RNA from positive sense viral RNA.

31. Mention four (4) blood borne parasites:

32. Discuss the medical importance of Ascaris lumbricoides ?

33. Mention two trematodes causing intestinal schistosomiasis

34. Explain five (5) the clinical manifestation caused by Wuchereria bancrofti

35. Discuss the clinical manifestations caused by acanthamoeba spp.

36. Explain the life cycle of Naegleria fowleri.

37. Explain the life cycle of Drancunculus medinensis.

38. Discuss the life cycle of Hookworms.

39. Describe the pathology and pathogenesis of Loa loa.

40. Differentiate urinary schistosomiasis from intestinal schistosomiasis.

41. Explain the differences between Herpex simplex-1 virus (HSV-1) and Herpes simplex-2 virus (HSV-2).

42. Discuss the pathology and pathogenesis caused by Treponema pallidum

43. With examples, What do you understand by “ Opportunistic infections” ?

44. Explain extra-intestinal complications caused by Entamoeba histolytica.

45. Give the differences between Taena solium and Taenia saginata

46. Give short notes about antimalaria drugs

47. In mosquitoes of medical importance (family- Culicidae) , explain the structural differences between anopheline group and culicine group



48. Explain the structural differences between male anopheles mosquitoes and female anopheles mosquitoes.

49. Explain why mosquitoes are not vectors for HIV.

50. Explain the medical importance of snails.

51. Discuss the strength and shortcomings of Koch’s postulates.

52. Give out the clinical manifestation caused by group A streptococcus (GAS).


53. A premature baby, now 4 days old, has developed a white coating on her buccal mucosa extending onto her lips; and it appears to be painful.

a) What is the clinical diagnosis?

b) What is the most probable etiological agent ?

c) Mention the drugs of choice



54. A 27 years old woman came to your clinic with a complaint of fever, painful genital blisters which express clear fluid when ruptured, burning sensations around the blisters

a) What is the clinical diagnosis?

b) What is the most probable etiological agent ?

c) Mention the drugs of choice

55. A 32 years old man complains on difficult in swallowing, physical examination revealed white patches around the mouth; Laboratory diagnosis shows gram positive budding yeast cells.

a) What is the clinical diagnosis?

b) What is the possible causative organism?

c) Mention the drugs of choice.

56. . A 22-year-old cystic fibrosis patient presents because of fever and increasing dyspnea. A gram-negative organism is found in unusually high numbers in the mucus.

Which virulence factor is most important in colonization and maintenance of the organism in the lungs?

57. A patient has a gastric ulcer not induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Which characteristic appears to play a central role in the ability of the organism to colonize the stomach?


58. A 54-year-old man develops a pyogenic infection along the suture line after knee surgery. The laboratory gives a preliminary report of a beta-hemolytic, catalase-positive, coagulase-positive, gram-positive coccus.

a) What is the most likely causative agent?

b) What other pathologies caused by such etiological agent

c) Give the drug of choice

59. A male baby is born at 39 weeks gestation with a petechial rash, low birthweight, hepatosplenomegaly and bilateral cataracts. This is thought to be due to an infection acquired while the baby was still in utero. What is the most likely causative agent for this infection?

60. A 17 year old heterosexual male presents to his general practitioner with a 24 hour history of painful dysuria and a thin urethral discharge. Nothing abnormal is found on examination. A Gram-stained smear of a uretheral swab shows numerous pus cells and scattered intra-and extra-cellular Gram-negative diplococci. What is the causative agent?

61. A 30 year old heterosexual male treated for gonococcal urethritis returns to the surgery 5 days later with a relapse of dysuria and urethral discharge. Bacterial culture of a urethral swab is reported as negative. Identify the causative organism.

62. A 38 year old homosexually-active male in UK presents with a painless ulcer at the anal margin. He has had a steady partner for 5 years and not left the UK during the past 2 years, but had receptive anal intercourse with a new partner 3 weeks ago. Identify the most likely causative agent.

63. A 25 year old female presents with a short history of severe vulvo-vaginal inflammation and whitish discharge. She denies having had intercourse for the past month. Two weeks ago she had an episode of dysuria which was treated by her general practitioner with a 5 day course of amoxicillin. Identify the most likely causative agent.

64. A patient came to Clinic with complain of high fever and headache, physical examination reveals lymph node and liver enlargement and history of sleeping most of time was also mentioned. Under scenario :

a) Identify two species of the most likely etiological agent

b) Explain the mode of transmission of those pathogens

c) Explain the pathogenesis and drug of choice.

65. A 25 year old woman presents with dysuria and vaginal soreness. She admits to several similar episodes during the past year. On examination the external genitalia show extensive inflammation with a few vesicular lesions on the periphery. Identify the most likely causative agent



Post a Comment