BANK QUESTIONS | PHYSIOLOGY | CMT NTA LEVEL 4 | DOWNLOAD PDF

 1. Mention four (4) functions of serum proteins

 

Answer

· Transportation of lipids, vitamins etc

· Immune system – antibodies

· Act as enzymes

· Hemostasis – blood clotting

· Regulation of blood pressure (Oncotic pressure)

 

2. Name three (3) major electrolytes in the extracellular fluid compartment

 

Answer

· Sodium

· Calcium

· Chloride

· Bicarbonate

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3. Mention four (4) functions of the kidney

 

Answer

· Excretion of metabolic waste products and foreign chemicals

· Regulation of water and electrolytes balance

· Regulation of body fluid osmolarity and electrolyte concentration

· Regulation of arterial blood pressure

· Regulation oof acid – base balance

· Secretion, metabolism  and excretion of hormones

· Gluconeogenesis

 

4. What is the function of Kidney in glucose metabolism?

 

Answer

· Kidney synthesize glucose from amino acids and other precursor (i.e Gluconeogenesis)

 

5. Define the term “micturition”

 

Answer

· Micturition is the process by which the urinary bladder empties when it become filled

 

6. State two (2) major functions of Vitamin B12

 

Answer

· Promotion of growth

· Promotion of Red blood cell formation and maturation

 

7. Name four (4) Vitamin K – dependent clotting factors

 

Answer

· Factor II (Prothrombin)

· Factor VII

· Factor IX

· Factor X

 

8. Name the basic function of Vitamin A

 

Answer

· Formation of visual pigments

 

9. Enumerate two (2) importance of cholesterol in the body

 

Answer

· Component of cell membranes

· Precursor in the synthesis of steroid hormones, bile acids and Vitamin D

 

10. Mention type of antibody against Red blood cells present in each of the following blood group

a) Group A

b) Group B

c) Group O

 

Answer

a) Antibody against B antigen

b) Antibody against A antigen

c) Antibodies against A and B antigens

 

11. State the Starling forces which determine filtration across the capillary membrane

 

Answer

· Blood hydrostatic pressure

· Blood osmotic (Oncotic) pressure

· Interstitial hydrostatic pressure

· Interstitial osmotic (Oncotic) pressure

 

12. What is the function of Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)?

 

Answer

· ACTH stimulate secretion of glucocorticoids steroid hormones from adrenal cortex cells


 

13. Name any four (4) transcellular fluids

 

Answer

· Cerebrospinal fluids

· Mucus

· Synovial fluid

· Vitreous humor

· Aqueous humor

· Pleural fluid

· Peritoneal fluid

 

14. Mention four (4) functions of epithelial tissues

 

Answer

· Protection of underlying tissues

· Absorption

· Secretion

· Reception of sensory stimuli

 

15. Name five (5) hormones secreted from the hypothalamus

 

Answer

· Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)

· Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

· Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)

· Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)

·  Somatostatin

· Dopamine

 

16. What will be the result of excessive activity of Parathyroid gland?

 

Answer

· Rapid absorption of calcium salt from bones

· Hypercalcemia results in the extracellular fluid compartment

 

17. Mention three (3) types of Lipoproteins

 

Answer

· Very low density lipoprotein

· Low density lipoprotein

· High density lipoprotein

 

 

 

 

18. State three (3) metabolic effects of Insulin

 

Answer

· Stimulate glucose uptake by muscles and connective tissues

· Increase conversion of glucose to glycogen

· Prevent breakdown of protein and fats

· Decrease Glycogenolysis

 

19. Mention two (2) hormone from the anterior Pituitary which target direct the Gonads

 

Answer

· Follicle stimulating hormone

· Lutenizing hormone

 

20. Name the three (3) steps in urine formation

 

Answer

· Filtration

· Reabsorption

· Secretion

 

21. State three (3) functions of lymph

 

Answer

· Remove metabolic waste from the tissue cells

· Maintain the composition of tissue fluid

· Absorb fats from the small intestine through lymphatic vessels

· Act against the pathogenic infections of microbes

· Supply nutrients to the body

 

22. Mention three (3) function of the nose in respiration

 

Answer

· Warm air

· Humidify air

· Filter air

 

23. What are the two (2) important components in calculation of Cardiac output?

 

Answer

· Stroke volume

· Heart rate

 

 

 

 

24. Enumerate four (4) functions of hepatocytes

 

Answer

· Bile production

· Storage

· Detoxification

· Phagocytosis

· Synthesis of blood components

 

25. Mention five (5) components of heart conduction system

 

Answer

· Sinoatrial node

· Atrioventricular node

· Bundle of His

· Bundle branches

· Purkinje fibres

 

26. State the function of each of the following;

a) Intrinsic factor

b) Pepsin

c) Gastric mucus

 

Answer

a) Intrinsic factor combines with Vitamin B12 and makes it absorbable

b) Pepsin breakdown protein into peptides

c) Gastric mucus lubricate food and act as protective barrier of the lining epithelium

 

27. Mention three (3) functions of Hydrochloric acid produced from the Parietal cells

 

Answer

· Convert Pepsinogen to Pepsin

· Destroy some bacterial and microbes

· Provide optimal PH environment for Pepsin

· Stimulate the small intestine to release Secretin and CCK

 

28. Mention three (3) major  features which increase the absorptive surface of the small intestine

 

Answer

· Presence of mucosal folds

· Presence of villi

· Luminal plasma membrane has microvilli

 

 

29. State the process of starch and lipid digestion in the oral cavity of human being.

 

Answer

· Starch will be converted to sugar by Salivary amylase

· Lipid will not be changed as Lingual lipase is inactive

 

30. Name three (3) end products of carbohydrate digestion which can easily be absorbed

 

Answer

· Glucose

· Fructose

· Galactose

 

31. State function of each of the following enzymes;

a) Pancreatic amylase

b) Pancreatic lipase

c) Nuclease

 

Answer

a) Pancreatic amylase breakdown starch into simple sugar

b) Pancreatic lipase breakdown fats into fatty acids and glycerol

c) Nuclease breakdown nucleic acids into nucleotide

 

32. Name three (3) groups of hormones according to chemical nature

 

Answer

· Steroid hormones

· Peptide hormones

· Amine hormones

 

33. Name three (3) functions of lymph nodes

 

Answer

· Filtration

· Phagocytosis

· Haematopoiesis

 

34. Differentiate between Tidal volume and Residual volume

 

Answer

· Tidal volume is the volume of air inspired of expired with each normal breath

· WHILE Residual volume is the volume of air remaining in the lungs after the most forceful expiration

 

 

 

35. Mention four (4) pulmonary capacities used in Physiology

 

Answer

· Inspiratory capacity

· Functional residual capacity

· Vital capacity

· Total lung capacity

 

36. Mention two (2) hormones stored in the posterior lobe of the Pituitary gland

 

Answer

· Oxytocin

· Antidiuretic (Vasopressin) hormone

 

37. Name four (4) major types of tissue in human body

 

Answer

· Epithelial tissue

· Muscular tissue

· Connective tissue

· Nervous tissue

 

38. Define the term “Gluconeogenesis”

 

Answer

· Gluconeogenesis is the formation of carbohydrates (glucose) from proteins and fats

 

39. What are the end product of glycolysis in the following situation;

a) Aerobic respiration

b) Anaerobic respiration

 

Answer

a) Aerobic respiration: Pyruvic acid

b) Anaerobic respiration: Lactic acid

 

40. What is the meaning of “Pleural effusion”?

 

Answer

· Pleural effusion is the accumulation of fluid in the pleural space

 

41. Lipids include several types of chemical compounds. Mention three (3)

 

Answer

· Neutral fat

· Phospholipids

· Cholesterol

42. State the function of erythropoietin hormone

 

Answer

· Erythropoietin hormone stimulate the production of red blood cells

 

43. Mention four (4) major electrolytes in the Intracellular fluid compartment

 

Answer

· Potassium

· Magnesium

· Phosphate

· Protein

 

44. Name two (2) important vitamins during formation and maturation of Red blood cells

 

Answer

· Vitamin B9 (Folate)

· Vitamin B12

 

45. Mention four (4) fat soluble vitamins

 

Answer

· Vitamin A

· Vitamin D

· Vitamin E

· Vitamin K

 

46. Name two (2) major periods/phases of cardiac cycle

 

Answer

· Diastole

· Systole

 

47. Mention two major hormones involved in Calcium regulation

 

Answer

· Parathyroid hormone

· Active Vitamin D

 

48. State how “Pancreas is both exocrine and endocrine gland”

 

Answer

· Pancreas is exocrine because it has duct draining pancreatic juice in the intestine

· Pancreas is endocrine because it secretes hormones like Insulin direct into the blood stream

 

49. Enumerate three (3) functions of Oxytocin hormone

 

Answer

· Milk ejection in lactating mothers

· Uterine contractions like during labour

· Reduces excretion of urine (Antidiuretic effect)

 

50. Mention four (4) physiological effects of Thyroxine hormone on Cardiovascular system

 

Answer

· Increase blood flow to the body tissue

· Increase cardiac output

· Increase heart rate

· Increase heart strength

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