ORAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS | BASIC OF FORENSIC MEDICINE | DOWNLOAD PDF

 

1. Mention 3 importance of forensic medicine

a) To investigate the crime to prevent it.

b) To save the life of the innocent.

c) Solve inheritance issues

d) Administration of justice

e) Investigate mass disasters

f) Identification of crime/disaster victims and/or perpetrators of crimes

 

2. Mention 3 ways  to avoid contamination of forensic evidence and 2 ways to avoid sample degradation

a) Wear facial mask, nose mask, head cover and goggles.

b) Use sterile disposable gloves, over shoes and hooded (Covered) suits.

c) Once items are packed, they should not be reopened.

d) Use paper bags for biological sample storage.

e) Always handle one item at a time. (change sterile gloves after taking one item).

f) Take the containers to the evidence and not the evidence to the container. Contact between victim and suspect should be avoided at all time.  

g) Never pack several items or objects together

 

3. Mention 3 ways to avoid sample degradation

a) Never expose the evidence in excessive heat.

b) Don’t use decayed samples.

c) Freezing and thawing the samples repeatedly should be avoided.

d) Avoid use of chemical preservatives such as formalin or paraffin for DNA samples.

 

4. Mention 3 important things to consider when collecting forensic evidence

a) Have PPEs e.g. clinical coat, masks, goggles, sterile gloves, shoe cover, head cover

b) Have sample collection materials e.g. sterile swabs, EDTA bottle, filter papers

c) Have packaging materials e.g. brown paper envelops and/or plastic containers

d) Storage facilities e.g. shelves/metal cabinets for dry samples, refrigerator/freezer for wet samples

e) Have a SEAL for securing a forensic evidence

f) Collect a REFERENCE SAMPLE – a pure sample collected from a victim, suspect and/or a relative for the purpose of confirmation and comparison

g) Maintaining chain of custody is very important

h) Quality issues and proper documentation

 

5. What is Chain of custody? (b) What is the importance of custody in forensic setting?

Chain of custody is a processes for documenting, collecting and protecting evidence chronologically history of sample/evidence from point of collection to the court room

Importance

 

(b) Mention 3 importance of custody in forensic setting?

a) Preserve sample integrity

b) avoid contamination

c) avoid tempering with the sample

d) The respective documents have to be properly filled with clear hand writing and language to be simple and understood.

e) Chain of custody gives confidence that the evidence could not have been tampered

 

6. Police force form number 3 is a tool for documentation of forensic evidence. It has five parts. Mention 3 parts and its use

 Police Form 3 it is a police form which has got four parts namely:

a) Part 1:Request for medical examination: This part is to be filled by the police officer

b) Part 2: Medical details of the alleged case

c) Part 3: Assault, accident and other cases

d) Part 4: Sexual assault cases

e) Lastly: Medical practitioner’s remarks –where a medical practitioner has to make opinion or suggestions without drawing conclusions

 

7. Mention 3 importance of Forensic evidence

a) Analysis of forensic evidence is used in the investigation and prosecution of civil and criminal proceedings

b) Help to establish the guilt or innocence of possible suspects

c) Needed to confirm the occurrence of incidence e.g. sexual assault and to prove or disprove a link between the alleged perpetrator and the assault

d) It is a crucial components in securing prosecution and sentencing

e) Help to determine the cause of death especially in toxicological cases.

f) In establishing an identity of the person connected to the crime,

g) It can forgive the innocent or collaborate the victim testimony

 

 

 

 

8. In Court of law what is cross examination? (b) what is the role of cross examination

Cross examination: - It is a process whereby the examination of a witness who has already testified in order to check or discredit the witness’s testimony, knowledge or credibility.

(b) What is the role of cross examination?

• It produces critical evidence in trial especially if a witness contradicts previous testimony

 It serves two functions

(1) to test the veracity of the witness and the accuracy of the evidence

 (2) to obtain evidence on points on which he has not been questioned in chief and which may support the cross-examiner’s case.

 

9. Explain two principles of Forensic Medicine (a) Principle of progressive change (b) Principle of Comparison

a) Principle of progressive change

Everything changes with passage of time. Its impact in forensic medicine is immense. The criminal, crime scene, victim and the objects involved in crime or close to the crime, all undergo changes and thus may become unrecognizable/less recognizable with time and interference.

b) Principle of comparison

Only the likes can be compared, according to the law of comparison. This principle emphasize on the necessity of providing like samples and specimen for comparison.

 

10. Mention 5 important items to document when labeling a sample and/or   evidence:

a) Registration number /file number

b) Name of the patient/victim

c) Date of birth (age)

d) Sex

e) Date of collection

f) Time of collection

g) Description of sample and/or evidence

h) Name of location of collection (geographical)

i) Name of collecting officer

 

 

 

11.  Explain two principles of Forensic Medicine (a) Principle of circumstantial facts (b) Principle of analysis

Principle of circumstantial facts

Circumstantantial evidence relies on an inference to connect it to a  conclusion of fact e.g. fingerprints at the scene of the crime  vs direct evidence which supports the truth without  any additional evidence

Evidence not drawn by direct observation. Requires some reasoning and inference

Principle of analysis

• The analysis can be no better than the sample analyzed. This principle emphasizes the necessity of correct packing and sampling for effective use of experts.

• This involves early detection, minimal/none interference for the sample to be representative.

 

12. Mention 3 eye signs help to confirm death

a) loss of corneal and light reflexes

b) Mid dilated position of the pupils

c) Irregular size and shape of the pupils

d) Eyelids usually closed incompletely

e) The sclera remains exposed,

 

13. The late changes after death include

a) Postmortem decomposition (and Putrefaction) process of decay of the flesh and organs of the body which become full of gas and eventually liquefy

b) Saponification (adipocere formation)

c) Mummification(decomposition in dry environment

d) Maceration

e) Postmortem wounds produced by animals, birds and fish.

14. Mentions 3 factors that affect Rigor Mortis

a) Environmental temperature: Cold and wet à onset slow, duration longer

b) Hot and dry à onset fast, duration shorter

c) Muscular activity before death: Muscles healthy and robust, at rest beforedeathà slow onset, duration longer Muscles exhausted/ fatigued onset rapid, esp in those limbs being used (e.g. in someone running

d) Increase activity (convulsions, electrocution, lightning) è rapid onset & short duration

e) Cause of death: asphyxia, pneumonia, muscle paralysis & dehydration – slow onset

f) Septicemia & poisoning –  rapid onset, may even be absent, especially in limbs affected by septicemia; emaciated or died of wasting disease– rapid onset, short duration

 

15. Briefly explain principle of exchange as applied in Forensic Medicine

· According to this, when a criminal or his instrument of crime comes into contact with a victim or the object surrounding him, they leave traces, and the criminal or his instrument picks up traces from the same contact.

· Locard’s Exchange Principle (Edmond Locard 1877-1966) says when two objects come into contact with each other; each of the objects will leave particles of one on the other. It is this principle that is the foundation of the study of “trace evidence”.

 

 

16.  What are the functions of the medico-legal autopsy?

a) The interpretation of any other unnatural conditions, including those associated with surgical or medical procedures

b) The identity of the body

c) The nature and number of injuries

d) The expectation of life for insurance purposes

 

 

17.  Mention 3 importance of Forensic evidence?

a) May be used in the investigation and prosecution of civil and criminal proceedings

b) Help to establish the guilt or innocence of possible suspects

c) May help to determine the cause of death especially in toxicological cases.

d) Provide the vital link between the health and criminal justice systems

e) It is a crucial components in securing prosecution and sentencing

f) Help to determine the cause of death especially in toxicological cases.

g) In establishing an identity of the person connected to the crime, it can forgive the innocent or collaborate the victim testimony

 

 

18. Mention 4 importance of forensic medicine

a) To investigate the crime to prevent it.

b) To save the life of the innocent.

c) Preventive public health aspects

d) Solve inheritance issues

e) Age estimation

f) Administration of justice

g) Investigate mass disasters

h) Identification of crime/disaster victims and/or perpetrators of crimes

 

 

 

19. Mention 3 late changes after death

a) Postmortem decomposition (and Putrefaction) process of decay of the flesh and organs of the body which become full of gas and eventually liquefy

b) Saponification (adipocere formation)

c) Mummification(decomposition in dry environment)

d) Maceration

e) Postmortem wounds produced by animals, birds and fish.

 

20. Mention 3 roles of Expert witness in the court of law.

a. An expert witness uses his or her knowledge or experience to give an opinion on a particular issue(s) to a court.  

b. Consider the questions asked of them, and formulate an opinion on the medical issues based on their experience and qualifications.

c. Medical expert may be called to provide a report on the patient’s prognosis after injury

 

 

21. Define these terms: (a) Laceration, (b) Abrasion  (c) Contusion

(a)  A laceration is a tear in tissue caused by a shearing or a crushing force.

(b) An abrasion is an injury to the skin in which there is removal of the superficial epithelial layer of the skin (the epidermis) by friction against a rough surface

(c) Contusions is an area of haemorrhage into soft tissue due to rupture of blood vessels caused by blunt trauma.

 

22.   What does Forensic anthropologist do? Mention  any 3 roles or what they assess  

Forensic anthropologist deals with the analysis of human skeletal remains resulting from unexplained deaths

             Forensic Anthropologists can often answer questions such as:

a) Are the remains human?

b) Are the remains single individual or mixed remains of several individuals?

c) When did the death occur?

d) What are the gender, age, and race of the individual?

 

 

 

 

 

23.  What are the elements of Forensic Serology? Mention any 3

The serology section of a forensic laboratory may deal with any or all of the following:

a) Blood typing

b) Characterization of unknown stains

c) Paternity testing

d) Semen identification in sexual assault cases

e) DNA typing for identification of victims and suspects

 

 

24.  What is Forensic odontology? (b) What are the 3  roles of forensic odontology?.

· It is the proper handling, examination and evaluation of dental evidence, which will be then presented in the interest of justice

· Roles:

a) Identification of found human remains

b) Assessment of bite mark injuries

c) It is the use of features unique to human dentition aiding to personal identification

d) It aids identification victims of violence, disaster or other mass tragedies where bodies cannot be recognized by visual methods in case of grossly decomposed body leaving behind the skeleton

e) Assessment of cases of abuse (such as child, spousal or elder abuse)

 

25.  How will you treat none fatal blunt injuries?

a) Debridement, stitching, wound dressing and immobilization

b) Anti-pain injectable or tablets.

c) Oral antibiotics

d) Tetanus toxoid vaccine if needed

 

26.  In referral and linkages of the injuries, mention 3 roles of a social worker

a) Take control of and to improve their lives in condition where their security, safety or ability to participate in civic life are limited

b) Counseling and guidance

c) Conduct survivor need assessment

d) Processing charge exemption

 

 

 

27.  Mention 3 diagnostic feature of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS):

a) Deaths are unexpected

b) Autopsy reveals no adequate cause of death

c) The history is usually uniform, with either;

A perfectly well child or One with only trivial symptoms- being put in the sleeping place at night , to be found dead in the morning

d) The body of the child appears unremarkable

 

28.  Mention 3 features In Battered Baby Syndrome (BBS)

a) Malnutrition, begging or stealing

b) Poor hygiene, matted hair, dirty skin or body odour

c) Unattended physical or medical problems

d) Inappropriate clothing, especially inadequate clothing in winter

e) Frequent illness, infection or sores.

f) Comments from a child that no one provides care at home

g) There is usually severe, ulcerating diaper rash.

 

29. With examples explain the “Principle of exchange” as applied to forensic medicine

According to this, when a criminal or his instrument of crime comes into contact with a victim or the object surrounding him, they leave traces, and the criminal or his instrument picks up traces from the same contact.

Locard’s Exchange Principle (Edmond Locard 1877-1966) says when two objects come into contact with each other; each of the objects will leave particles of one on the other. It is this principle that is the foundation of the study of “trace evidence”.

 

30.  Explain the following  two principles of forensic medicine

(a) Principle of progressive change (b) principle of comparison

 

(a) Principle of progressive change

Everything changes with passage of time. Its impact in forensic medicine is immense. The criminal, crime scene, victim and the objects involved in crime or close to the crime, all undergo changes and thus may become unrecognizable/less recognizable with time and interference.

 

(b) Principle of comparison  

Only the likes can be compared, according to the law of comparison. This principle emphasize on the necessity of providing like samples and specimen for comparison.

 

31. List four (4) tools that can be used to collect forensic evidence

a) Tweezers: Used to removal of gross/macroscopic material observed with the naked eye. Materials such as hair, glass fragments, grass/vegetation, fibers, and paint flecks

b) Adhesive tape/Jelly: Can be used to collect visible marks such as shoe marks, footprints and fingerprints

c) Vacuum machine: This method is useful for collecting microscopic material.

d) Sterile blade: Used to cut the stained piece of cloth or materials, e.g. sofa

e) Clean brush

f) Pipette

g) Swab sticks

 

32. List four (4) steps of collecting forensic evidence or samples

a) Condon the area (seal the area)

b) Wear protective gears (e.g. facial mask, nose mask, head cover and goggles, sterile gloves, over shoes and hooded suits)

c) Identify physical evidence and or samples

d) Take the containers/package to the evidence/sample

e) Collect physical evidence and or sample

f) Pack in appropriate package and seal

g) Document each package appropriately

 

33. Mention 3 ways of avoiding sample contamination and

a) Wear facial mask, nose mask, head cover and goggles.

b) Use sterile disposable gloves, over shoes and hooded suits.

c) Once items are packed, they should not be reopened.

d) Always handle one item at a time. (change sterile gloves after taking one item).

e) Take the containers to the evidence and not the evidence to the container.

f) Contact between victim and suspect should be avoided at all time.

g) Multiple suspects, the victims and their clothing must be kept apart at all time. Each item should be packed, sealed and labeled as soon as it is taken.

h) Never pack several items or objects together.

 

34.   Mention 3 ways of avoiding sample degradation

a) Never expose the evidence in excessive heat.

b) Don’t use decayed samples.

c) Freezing and thawing the samples repeatedly should be avoided.

d) Avoid use of chemical preservatives such as formalin or paraffin for DNA samples.


 

35.  Mention 4 possible causes of death in  criminal abortion

a) Primary cardiac arrest caused by a vagal reaction during by forceful dilation of the cervix.

b) Complications of anesthesia   

c) Hemorrhage

d) Septic procedures   

e) Air embolus  

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