1. Papaverine, is one of the alkaloid produced by opium as a starting material. What is the parent plant that produces opium

A. Erythrose coca

B. Papaver somniferum

C. Lophophora williamsii

D. Tubocurarine

E. Nicotiana tobacum

   2. The following alkaloid is common ingredient in cough preparations

A. Morphine

B. Codeine

C. Cocaine

D. Strychinine

E. Atropine

    3.  The following purine alkaloid induces diuresis

A. Theobromine

B. Theophylline

C. Caffeine

D. Nicotine

E. Xanthine


   4.  The part of bark necessary for gaseous exchange

A. Stomata

B. Lenticels

C. Cork cambium

D. Phelogen

E. Ruptured pericycle


   5.  In naming plants scientifically the species name usually indicates certain characteristics of the plant. Which of the following names indicates plant color on the species name?

A. Piper nigram

B. Atropa belladonna

C. Cassia angustifolia

D. Papavar somniferum

E. Myristica fragrans






6.  Cultivation of tea requires which of the following conditions

A. 1000-2000M

B. 800-1800M

C. 100-200M

D. 2000-4000M

E. 1500-3000M


7. Allelopathy is the constant effect which living organisms exert on each other eg growth of belladonna is inhibited when grown close to mustard.

A. Allelopathy

B. Recombination

C. Selection                                       free

D. Hybridization

E. Vegetative propagation


8. Tea and coffee is an example of

A. Infusion

B. Decoction

C. Digestion

D. Maceration

E. Tincture


9. Secondary cell wall of plants

A. Is available in growing and dividing cells

B. Contains suberin

C. Modulate porosity, pH, and ion concentrations within the wall

D. Contains lignins which is not stronger than cellulose

E. Is first formed wall in the cell


10. The following alkaloids are cannot be decomposed by heat

A. Strychinine

B. Ephedrine

C. Atropine

D. Mescaline

E. Quinine















Write TRUE if the statement is correct or FALSE if the statement is wrong.

Each correct answer will carry 0.5 mark

Small letters will have a half a mark penalty

T and F will not be marked


        1. The following are true about cascara plants

A. .............Cascara consists of the dried bark of Rheum palmatum    FALSE

B. .............Contains cascarosides                           TRUE

C. .............Anthrones in the dried barks causes vomiting       FALSE

D. .............Used as purgative                      TRUE

E. .............Is an anthraquinone qlycoside     TRUE


   2. Volatile can be classified on the basis of their functional groups into

A. ...............Hydrocarbon volatile oils e.g. turpentine rosemary oil       FALSE

B. ...............Alcoholic volatile oils e.g. peppermint, cardamom and coriander oils    TRUE

C. ...............Aldehydic volatile oils e.g. lemon oil, orange oil, cinnamon   TRUE

D. ................Ketonic volatile oils e.g. camphor, spearmint oils   TRUE

E. ...............Oxide volatile oils e.g. turpentine oil    FALSE


   3. Peppermint oil

A. ............Obtained from mentha piperita              TRUE

B. ...........Used in treatment of asthma                      FALSE

C. ...........Treats hurtburn                                TRUE

D. ...........Has culminative action          TRUE

E. ............Is a fixed oil                       FALSE


  4. Lemon peel and orange peel oils contain the following ingredients in common

A. ...........Limonene         TRUE

B. ...........Hispreidine        FALSE

C. ...........Citronellol          TRUE

D. ...........Sabinene             FALSE

E. ...........Vitamin C          TRUE






     5. The following describes clove oil

A. ............Contains eugenol                       TRUE

B. ............Natural source is Syzygium aromaticum              TRUE

C. .............Is used as an ointment base                   FALSE

D. .............Cultivated in Mwanza Region           FALSE

E. .............Contains alpha linoleic oil                      FALSE


     6. Characteristics of fixed oils and fats

A. ..............Fats often found in plants while fixed oil are found in plants FALSE

B. ..............Fats /oil are associated with protein reserves TRUE

C. ..............Most fixed oils exists as solid or semi solid at room temperature   FALSE

D. ..............Most fats exists as liquid at room temperature   FALSE

E. ..............Extraction of fixed oil involves cold press   TRUE


      7. Cod-liver oil

A. ..............Extracted from livers of Gadus morrhua    TRUE

B. ..............Is unsaturated at carbon number 16 and carbon number 22      TRUE

C. ..............Unsaturated at carbon number 16 to carbon number 22  FALSE

D. ..............Contains vitamins C and K   FALSE

E. ..............Used in management of gout   FALSE


      8. Leguminosae family

A. .............Cassia angustifolia      TRUE

B. .............Arachis hypogeal         TRUE

C. ..............Ricinus communis        FALSE

D. .............Olea europoae                FALSE

E. .............Phytostigma venonosum    TRUE




















· This section consists of 2 parts of questions each with 5 matching items

· Each question carries 5 marks, (i.e. each matching item carries 1 mark)

· Match corresponding capital letter from item B to that of item A in the SPACE provided.


1. Match the following items indicating the constituents corresponding to the natural source of these constituents, the answer should be provided in the required space.


PART A ( constituents)


PART B ( natural sources)


Lauric acid


A. Olive oil




B. Peanut oil




C. Coconut oil




D. Castor oil




E. Lard




F. Lanolin




G. Wax




H. Almond oil







2. Match the following items indicating the natural sources corresponding to the alkaloids present in these natural source, the answer should be provided in the required space.



PART A (natural sources)


PART B ( alkaloid)


Claviceps purpurea


A. Ephedrine


Catharanthus roseus


B. Reserpine


Pilocarpus jaborandi


C. Vinca alkaloids


Rauwolfia serpentine


D. Yohimbe


Strychnous nux-vomica


E. Caffeine




F. Colchicine




G. Pilocarpine




H. Ergotamine




I. strychnine











· This section consists of five (5) questions.

· Write your answer on the Space provided

· Write a readable handwrite; DIRTY WORK IS DISCOURAGED

1.   a) Mention two examples of vinca alkaloids ( 2 marks)

i. Vincristine

ii. Vinblastine

       b) What are the uses of vinca alkaloids           ( 4 marks)

i. Vinblastine – treatment of generalized Hodgkin’s disease, lymphocytic lymphoma, histiocytic lymphoma, advanced testicular carcinoma, kaposi’s sarcoma, choriocarcinoma and breast cancer unresponsive to therapy

ii. Vincristine – treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia in combination therapy in Hodgkin’s disease, ymphosarcoma, reticulum cell sarcoma, neuroblastoma and Wilm’s tumour


       c)  Mention four (4) examples of ergot alkaloids (2 marks)

1. Water soluble:

§ Ergometrine

§ Ergonovine

§ Ergometrinine

         2. Water insoluble:

§ Ergotamine

§ Ergotaminine



2.  a) Mention four (4) uses of ipecacuanha        (4 marks)

i. Expectorant

ii. Emetic

iii. Amoebic Dysentry

iv. Emetine is more expectorant and less emetic in action than cephaeline

v. Psychotrine:  

vi. Selective HIV inhibitors (study could lead to therapeutically useful agents) 




    b)  What is the use of LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide) (4 marks )

Lysergic acid derivative, LSD is a psychomimetic (a potent hallucinogen) controlled under narcotics.


3.  a)  Mention four cardiac glycosides obtained from natural plant sources ( 2 marks)

From digitalis plant

i. Digoxin

ii. Digitoxin


From Squill

iii. Scillaren A

iv. Scillaren B


From strophantus

v. K-strophanithin,

vi. erysimoside,

vii. K strophanthoside and

viii. Cymarin



      b) Mention medicinal plant that has proven to contain the following substances ( 6 marks)

i. Tannins ( 3 plants each one is 0.5 mark)

a. wattle (Acacia sp.),

b. oak (Quercus sp.), 

c. eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp.), 

d. willow (Salix caprea), 

e. pine (Pinus sp.)

ii. Silica crystals ( 1.5 mark)

Cardamon seeds

iii. Calcium carbonate crystals (3 plants each one is 0.5 mark)

Senna, Hyoscyamus, Quassia, Liquorice, Cascara, Quillaia, Rauwolfia

 Rhubarb, Stramonium, Senna, Clove

Ipecacuanha, Gentian, Cinnamon



iv. Hesperidin and diosmin ( two points each is 0.75 mark)

Lemon and




4. a) What are the ergastic substances? (2 marks)

Ergastic substances are food reserve (storage products) or by-products of metabolism (excretory/secretory products)


    b) By giving examples, mention general four (4) forms of calcium oxalate crystals as

microscopically appear in different plant sources of drugs (6 marks) ( 4 points, each 1.5 mark)

i. Prisms e.g. Senna, Hyoscyamus, Quassia, Liquorice, Cascara, Quillaia, Rauwolfia)

ii. Rosettes e.g. Rhubarb, Stramonium, Senna, Clove etc.

iii. Single acicular crystals e.g. Ipecacuanha, Gentian, Cinnamon

iv. Bundles of acicular crystals e.g. Squill

v. Microsphenoidal or sandy crystals e.g. Belladonna


5. a) What are the chemical tests for identification of lipids? ( 4 marks)

i. Fixed oils and fats are coloured brown or black with a 1% solution of Osmic acid  (1 mark)

ii. In dilute tincture of Alkanna, fixed oils and fats slowly turn red  ( 1 mark)

iii. Saponification reaction  ( 2 marks)

A cold mixture of equal parts of a saturated solution of potash and strong solution of ammonia slowly saponifies fixed oils and fats resulting in observable characteristic soap crystals


    b) i) What is an adulterant? (1 mark)

An adulterant is a medicinal plant which does not conform to official standards or which does not comply with the requirement of the pharmacopoeia cheap and easily available in large quantities


       ii) Mention three (3) methods of adulteration ( 1.5 Mark) ( ANY THREE POINTS EACH 0.5 MARK)

i. Inferior medicinal plant quality

ii. Spoilage of drug

iii. Deterioration

iv. Admixture

v. Sophistication with inferior varieties

vi. Substitution

vii. Addition of worthless heavy materials



 iii) What happens when a drug become adulterated? ( 1.5 mark) each 0.75 mark

a. Medicinal action of the drug may be decreased

b. When toxic materials are added may cause harm to the users




· This section consists of 2 guided answer questions

· Each question carries 10 marks

· Write an essay By corresponding correctly in the SPACE provided

· NOTE: Mention or listing points will not be marked


1. Gums, mucillages and pectins are substances produced by plants which on hyrolysis results to sugar and uronic acids. Explain the natural sources and uses of the following

i. Acasia gum

ii. Tragacanth gum

iii. Sterculia gum

iv. Psyllium

Introduction ( 1.5 marks)

Gums and mucilage have similar constitutuons and  on hydrolysis yield a mixture of sugar and uronic acids.


Gums are considered to be pathological products formed upon injury of the plant or owing to unfavourable conditions such as draught, by a breakdown of cell walls e.g. tragacanth (extracellular formation gummosis) 


 mucilage are generally normal products of metabolism formed within the cell (intracellular formation) and may represent storage material, a water storage reservoir or a protection for germinating seeds.


Tragacanth is the “air hardened gummy exudate flowing naturally or obtained by incision, from the trunk & branches of Astragalus gummifer (Labillardiere) and certain other spp. of Astragalus

Tragacanth is the gum that exudes immediately after injury of the plant occurs and is therefore pre-formed in the plant


Tragacanth Constitutes of Tragacanthin Bassorin Sugar Uronic acids

Tragacanth is Used for the following purposes

Used as a suspending agent for insoluble powders, Binding agent in pills and tablets

Emulgent ,A binding agent in food industry    ( 2 marks)







Acacia gum is a dried gum obtained from the stem and branches of Acacia senegal and some other spp of Acacia (Leguminoseae). It constituted of Arabin (Arabi acid)

Galactose, Arabinose, Rhamnose, Uronic acids and Oxidase enzyme


Acasia gum has been used for the following

Used as a general stabilizer in emulsions, Used in lozenges, As demulcent, Used for treatment of diarrhoea, cough and sore throat, It is also widely used in food and drink industries ( 2 marks)


Sterculia gum is the gummy exudate obtained from the tree, Sterculia urens (Sterculiaceae). It contains, Uronic acids, D-galactose, L-rhamnose, D-galacturonic acid, Acetic acid 

    The following are the Uses of sterculia gum

Granular grades are used as a bulk laxative (second only to psyllium seed in use as a bulk laxative).

Powdered gum is used in lozenges, pastes and denture fixture powders ( 2 marks)


Psyllium consists of the dried, ripe seeds of Plantago afra (Plantago psyllium), P. indica (P. arenaria) and P. ovata (Plantaginaceae). Psyllium constitutes of  Mucilage, Fixed oil, Sugars, Sterols and Protein.


Psyllium is mainly used as a Dietary fibre to relieve symptoms of both constipation,Mild diarrhea, Occasionally as a food thickener.

Research has shown lowering of blood cholesterol levels in people with elevated cholesterol,Lowering of blood glucose levels in people with type 2 diabetes

 ( 2 marks)


         Conclusion ( any relevant conclusion ) 0.5  mark













2. Extraction is the method of removing active constituents from a solid or liquid by means of liquid solvent. Explain Infusion, Decoction, Digestion, Maceration as some of the methods of extraction


Introduction: ( 1 mark)

Extraction is the method of removing active constituents from a solid or liquid by means of liquid solvent


Infusion  ( 2 marks)

Infusion: Fresh infusions are prepared by macerating the crude drug for a short period of time with cold or boiling water. These are dilute solutions of the readily soluble constituents of crude drugs.

Types of Infusion:

Fresh Infusion: e.g. Infusion of orange } 

Concentrated Infusion: e.g. concentrated infusion of Quassia


Decoction  ( 2 marks)

Decoction: In this process, the crude drug is boiled in a specified volume of water for a defined time; it is then cooled and strained or filtered. This procedure is suitable for extracting water-soluble, heat stable constituents. e.g. Tea , Coffee


Digestion  ( 2 marks)

This is a form of maceration in which gentle heat is used during the process of extraction. It is used when moderately elevated temperature is not objectionable. The solvent efficiency of the menstruum is thereby increased. e.g. Extraction of Morphine


Maceration  ( 2 marks)

Maceration: In this process solid ingredients are placed in a stoppered container with the whole of the solvent and allowed to stand for a period of at least 3 days (3 - 7 days) with frequent agitation, until soluble matter is dissolved. The mixture is then strained (through sieves / nets), the marc pressed and the combined liquids clarified (cleaned by filtration) or by decantation, after standing

         Types of maceration

Simple maceration: for organized and unorganized Crude drug e.g. i) Tincture of Orange ii) Tincture of Lemon iii) Tincture of Squill

Double maceration: Concentrated infusion of orange

Triple maceration: The maceration process may be carried out with help of heat or stirring e.g. i) Concentrated infusion of Quassia ii) Concentrated infusion of Senna 

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