QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS | PHYSIOLOGY | CMT NTA LEVEL 4

 1. A 7 years old boy was found to have poor vision due to vitamin deficiency. The most likely cause is deficiency of:

A. Vitamin A

B. Vitamin B                                  

C. Vitamin C

D. Vitamin D

E. Vitamin K

 

2. One of the following happen when the blood glucose is elevated:

A. Lipogenesis decreases

B. Glycogenesis decreases

C. Glycogenolysis decreases

D. Gluconeogenesis increase

E. Oxidation of glucose decreases

 

3. A 27 young female sustained a cut wound at the left hand. After few minutes bleeding stop at the wound site.

Which one of the following initiates clotting at the site of wound?

A. Kallikrein

B. Prostacyclin

C. Thromoxane A2                                             

D. Antithrombin III

E. Tissue thromboplastin

 

4. The main pacemaker of the heart is:

A. Bundle of his

B. Sinoatrial node

C. Left bundle branch

D. Right bundle branch

E. Atrio-ventricular node   

 

 

 

 

 

                                                       

5. One of the following is an example of a hormone associated with positive feedback mechanism:

A. Insulin

B. Oxytocin

C. Thyroxine

D. Antidiuretic

E. Mineracorticoids

                                  

6. One of the following is involved in converting unconjugated bilirubin into conjugated form:

A. Heame reductase

B. Heame oxygenase

C. Biliverdin reductase

D. Bilirubin glucoronidase

E. Cytochrome p450 reductase

                                           

7. The main organ involved in carbohydrate metabolism is:

A. Liver

B. Brain

C. Spleen

D. Kidney

E. Pancrease

 

8. One of the following is a constituent of Saliva:

A. Amylase

B. Maltose

C. Protease

D. Chymosin

E. Hydrochloric acid

 

9. The Functional optimal PH of Pancreatic amylase is:

A. 3

B. 4

C. 6

D. 7

E.   12

 

10. The life span of normal erythrocyte is:

A. 2 months

B. 3 months

C. 4 months

D. 5 months

E. 6 months

 

SECTION B: MULTIPLE TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS 10 MARKS

Instructions:

· This section consists of Four (4) questions with five (5) options each

· Write the word “TRUE” and NOT letter ‘T’ for a correct statement and the word “FALSE” NOT letter ‘F’ for incorrect statement in the space provided before each option

· All responses should be in CAPITAL letters

· Half (1/2) a mark will be awarded for each correct response

· Responses with letters ‘T’ and ‘F’ will not be awarded any mark

· There will be a penalty of half (1/2) of allocated marks for responses with small letters.

 

1. The following are involved in the regulation of extracellular fluid:

A. FALSE  Baroreceptor

B. FALSE  Drinking water

C. TRUE  Neural mechanism

D. TRUE  Antidiuretic hormone

E. TRUE  Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

 

2. The following are functions of lymph nodes:

A. FALSE  Transportation of lipids

B. TRUE  House for lymphocytes

C. FALSE  Production of lymphocytes

D. TRUE  Development of lymphocytes

E. TRUE  Filtration and phagocytosis of pathogen

 

3. Fatty acids may results from the action of the following enzymes on substrate:

A. TRUE  Lingual lipase 

B. TRUE  Phospholipase

C. FALSE  Gastric oxidase

D. TRUE  Pancreatic lipase

E. FALSE  Cholesterol oxidase

 

4. Regarding action of Luteinizing hormone:

A. TRUE  It stimulates production of sperm

B. TRUE  It stimulates production of testosterone

C. FALSE  It stimulates the production of oxytocin

D. FALSE  It causes the release of follicular stimulating hormone

E. FALSE It stimulates the growth and maturation of ova in the ovaries

 

 

 

SECTION C: MATCHING QUESTIONS 10 MARKS

Instructions:

· This section consists of two (2) questions of matching with five (5) options each

· Match the items from column B with those in column A by writing the letter of correct response in the space provided on each option. USE CAPITAL LETTERS

· Each correct response is awarded one (1) mark

Each item from column B is used only once

 

1. Match the functions from column B with the corresponding blood cells in column A

SN

ANSWER

COLUMN A:

(Blood cells)

COLUMN B: (Functions)

1.

H

Thrombocytes

A. Absorb nutrients

2.

C

Erythrocytes

B. Allows gaseous exchange

3.

E

Lymphocytes

C. Carries oxygen

4.

F

Eosinophils

D. Detoxification

5.

G

Neutrophils

E. Fights  against viral infection

 

 

 

F. Fights against parasite infection

 

 

 

G. First line to fight against bacterial infection

 

 

 

H. Involved in clotting mechanism

 

2. Match the descriptions from column B with the corresponding lung volume in column  A.

SN

ANSWER

COLUMN A:

(Blood cells)

COLUMN B: (Descriptions)

1.

A

Inspiratory reserve volume

A. Part of vital capacity still available at the end of a given inhalation

2.

C

Residual volume   

B. Part of vital capacity still available at the end of a given exhalation.

3.

H

Tidal volume  

C. Quantity of air remaining in the lungs after as much air as possible has been expelled from the lungs

4.

D

Vital capacity    

D. Quantity of air remaining in the lungs after minimal air has been expelled from the lungs

5.

B

Expiratory reserve volume

E. The maximum volume of air that can be exchanged during respiration

 

 

 

F. The sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, expiratory & inspiratory reserve volume and residual volume

 

 

 

G. The volume of air in the body at the end of passive exhalation, including expiratory reserve & residual volumes

 

 

 

H. Volume of air exchanged in one cycle of respiration (one breath).

 

 

 

SECTION D  SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS 40 MARKS

Instructions:

· This section consists of Eight (8) questions.

· Write your answers in the space provided on each question.

· Write a readable handwrite; DIRTY WORK IS NOT ALLOWED

 

1. Outline five (5) functions of the Liver (5 Marks)

 

Answer (Any 5 @ 1 mark)

· Nutrient and vitamin metabolism

· Breakdown of erythrocytes

· Detoxification

· Inactivation of hormones

· Production of heat

· Formation of bile

· Synthesis of plasma proteins

 

2. List five (5) functions of hydrochloric acid produced by Parietal cells (5 Marks)

 

Answer (5 points @ 1 mark)

· Decreases PH of chyme

· Activate the enzymes pepsin and lingual lipase

· Break up tissue and plant cell walls

· Convert ingested ferric ions to ferrous

· Destroy ingested bacteria and pathogens

 

3. Enumerate five (5) functions of the Kidney   (5 Marks)

 

Answer (Any 5 @ 1 mark)

· Filtering blood

· Regulation of blood pressure

· Regulation of  PH

· Regulation of blood volume

· Excretion of wastes

· Regulation electrolyte

· Production of hormone

· Activation of vitamin D

 

 

 

 

4. List five (5) functions of hormone produced by anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (5 Marks)

 

Answer (Any 5 @ 1 mark)

· Regulate growth

· Stimulate thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormonies

· Stimulate adrenal glands to produce cortisol

· Stimulate testes to produce sperm

· Stimulate production of testosterone

· stimulates the production and release of melanin (melanogenesis)

· hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates breast development and milk production

· Stimulates the growth and maturation of ova in the ovaries

· Stimulates production of estrogen

 

5. a) A 75kg man contains how many litres of intracellular and extracellular volume if 60% of the

weight is water (show your calculations) (3 Marks)

b) Mention four (4) electrolytes found in body fluid compartment (2 Marks)

Answers:

a) Calculations (3 points @ 1 mark)

· 60 x 75/100 = 45 litres total fluid

· 2/3 x 45 = 30 litres intracellular fluid

· 1/3 x15 litres extracellular

 

b) Electrolytes (Any 4 @ 0.5 mark)

· Sodium

· Potassium

· Calcium

· Magnesium

· Chloride

· Bicarbonate

· Protein

 

6. Write down five (5) functions of thyroid hormones (5 Marks)

 

Answer (5 points @ 1 mark)

· Increase/decrease synthesis of proteins:

· Increase basal metabolic rate and heat

· Regulation of metabolism protein fats carbohydrates

· Essential for normal growth and development

· Influence other organs and system to function

7. Outline five (5) factors that influence the heart rate (5 Marks)

 

Answer (Any 5 points @ 1 mark)

· Anxiety

· Grief

· Exercise

· Increase in blood temperature

· Emotion

· Decrease blood temperature

 

8. Name five (5) hormones produced by the adrenal gland.   (5 Marks)

 

Answer (Any 5 points @ 1 mark)

· Aldosterone

· Cortisol

· Adrenaline

· Noradrenaline

· Dehydroepiandrosterone 

· Adrenocorticotropic hormone

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION E: GUIDED EESSAY QUESTION 30 MARKS

Instructions

· This section consists of three (3) questions which are supposed to be answered in a narrative way

· Write your answer on the blank pages of this question paper; each question should start on a new page

· There will be a penalty of three (3) marks from score attained in this section if question(s) is/are not answered in essay form

 

1. Describe the blood circulation in the fetus   (10 Marks)

 

Answer

Introduction   1 Mark

· Blood circulation in fetus differs from circulation after birth because the foetus receives oxygen and nutrients from maternal blood

Main body 9 Marks

(Describe any 6 points @ 1.5 marks)

· Blood form placenta to foetus carried by umbilical veins

· From the umbilical vein enter the foetal ductus venosus

· Then passes the liver and enter the inferior vena cava

· From the inferior vena cava into the right atrium by pass fetal pulmonary circulation

· Enters left atrium through opening foramen ovale

· Enter the left ventricle and being pumped through the aorta to the rest of the body

· Lastly blood from iliac artery carry CO2 enter umbilical artery to the placenta.

 

2. Briefly describe the main functions of blood   (10 Marks)

 

Answer

Definition:   1 Mark

· Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells such as nutrients, oxygen and transports waste products away from those same cells and accounts for 7% of the human body weight

 

Functions 9 Marks

(Describe any 6 points @ 1.5 marks)

· Supply of oxygen to tissues (bound to hemoglobin which is carried in red cells)

· Supply of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids and fatty acids (dissolved in the blood or bound to plasma proteins (e.g. blood lipids)

· Removal of waste such as carbon dioxide, urea and lactic acid

· Immunological functions, including circulation of white cells, and detection of foreign material by antibodies

· Coagulation, which is one part of the body's self-repair mechanism

· Messenger functions, including the transport of hormones and the signaling of tissue damage

· Regulation of body pH 

· Regulation of core body temperature 

 

3. Explain the functions of lymphatic system (10 Marks)

 

Definition 2 Marks

· Lymphatic system is a network of tissue, organs, and vessels that help to maintain the body’s fluid balance, cleanse the body fluid of foreign matter and provide immune cells for defense.

 

Functions 8 Marks

(Describe 4 points @ 2 marks)

· Maintenance of fluid balance in the internal environment. It transport excess interstitial fluid back to bloodstream

· Absorption and transport of dietary fat, in which special lymphatic capillaries (lacteals) receive all absorbed fat (chyle) from the intestine and convey it through the thoracic duct to the venous system

· House Lymphocytes

· Generate An Immune Response

Lymphocyte are activated in the lymph nodes

When foreign protein drains from an infected area, antibodies specific to the protein are produced by immunologically competent cells and/or lymphocytes and dispatched to the infected area 

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