RESEARCH PROPOSAL | RESEARCH REPORT | SAMPLE DOWNLOAD PDF

UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA

MINISTRY OF HEALTH, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT GENDER ELDERLY AND CHILDREN.

(.…………..JINA LA CHUO…………….)

DIPLOMA IN CLINICAL MEDICINE 2020/2021.

RESEARCH REPORT.

 

TITLE:

HIGH PREVALENCE OF HIV/AIDS AMONG THE YOUTH AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTOR AT LIKOMBE HEALTH CENTER IN MTWARA  REGION FROM JANUARY TO MARCH 2020/202.

 

AUTHOR: ………………………    

 CANDIDATE NO: …………………………….

SUPERVISOR. ……………………………….

                                                        

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SAMPLE OF  RESEARCH PROPOSAL 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

 

CONTENTS.                                                                                                            PAGE.

Title page………………………………………………………………………………….i                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Certification and declarations…………………………………………………………….ii

Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………………...iii

List of Abbreviation………………………………………………………………………iv

Operational Definition of Terms…………………………………….…………………….v

Summary…………………………………………………………………………….........vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction.                                                                                                                    6

 1.1Background Information                                                                                                  6

 1.2. Problem statement                                                                                                           8

 1.3Significance of the study                                                                                                   8

1.4. The diagram of problem analysis ……….…………………………………………..….9  

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review.                                                                                                              10

2.1 Objectives.                                                                                                                         11

       2.1.0 Broad objectives                                                                                                        

       2.1.1 Specific objectives                                                                                               

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 METHODOLOGY.                                                                                                          12

3.1 Study design.                                                                                                                    12

3.2 Study Area                                                                                                                       12

3.3 Study population                                                                                                              12

3.4 Target population.                                                                                                            12

3.5 Sampling method                                                                                                             12

3.6 Sample size                                                                                                                      12

3.7 Tools and instruments                                                                                                      12

3.8 Data collection and management                                                                                     12

       3.8.0 Data analysis                                                                                                          12

       3.8.1 Pre-testing                                                                                                              12

3.9 Ethical consideration                                                                                                        12

3.10 study Limitation………………………………………………………………………..12

 

CHAPTER FOUR.

4.1 RESEARCH FINDINGS……………………………………………………………………………….12

CHAPTER FIVE.

5.1 DISCUSSION…………………………………………………………………………………………….12

CHAPTER 6

6.1 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………….13

6.2 Recommendations……………………………………………………………………………………13

REFERENCE………………………………………………………………………………………………….14

APPENDIXES.

 

 Work plan…….………………………………………………………………………………15                                                                                                              

 Research budget………………………………………………………………………………15                                                                                                               

 Questionnaires   ………………………………………………………………………………16                                                                                                              

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.

 

Special thanks to ………………. principle at …………….. Who gave me the permission to conduct this research report also for teaching on how to conduct the research report, ………………… coordinator of clinical medicine of ……………for teaching and help on research report writing. And last I would like to thank my parents for supporting me through money which helps me to accomplish my research report.

 

 

 

ABBREVIATIONS

AIDS     -    Acquired Immune -Deficiency

ARV      -    Ant retroviral drug

CTC      -     Care and treatment clinic

RMO    -    Regional Medical Officer

HIV       -     Human immune virus

H/C     -      Health Centre

NGO’S -    Non government organizations.

NACP    - National aids control product.

VCT        - Voluntary testing and counseling

WHO -       World Health Organization

 

 

 

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS.

Youth is defined as a time of life when one is young, and often means the time between childhood and adulthood. [Youth covers the age 15-24 years According to WHO]

 

 

 

 

SUMMARY.

 

The study was about factors contributing to high prevalence among the youth of LIKOMBE at Mtwara region, where the area which is affected by the problem were by 2016 to 2018 were   12,798 peoples who are affected with HIV/AIDS.

Study was on high prevalence of HIV/AIDS among youth of Likombe at Mtwara region and its associated factors. Under this study age group 15-35years were participated in order to check their level of their knowledge, skills and also about cultural and customs and high prevalence of HIV/AIDS.

This study it was cross section study which was assess the contributing factors on high prevalence of HIV/AIDS to the youth aging 15-35years in Likombe health center.

Only 100 youth including male and females where parts pated during my study. The total numbers of 100 questioners was provided to the youth aging 15-35years in order to check their level of knowledge and skills also cultural beliefs and customs on high prevalence of HIV/AIDS.

Oral permission from district medical officer at Likombe health was performed by giving permission on conducting of my study.

All study participants were accepted to participate on in my study without refusal. Data obtained under this study was  on 2016,2017 and 2018.The  result  findings show  that  most of the females  have inadequate  knowledge as risk  factors  which contributed the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. Rather than males. Also the resulted shown that the most the females were affected which is equal to 60% more than males which was equal to 40%.

 

 

CHAPTER 01.

1. INTRODUCTION.

HIV stands for human Immune Viruses and AIDS is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. HIV is causative virus of AIDS disease and collection of symptoms and infection resulting from depletion of immune system.

 

HIV is infected through sexual intercourse with infected partner, exposure to infected blood and blood products, from an infected mother to unborn child in the uterus, during delivery and during breastfeeding.

 

HIV/AIDS is major problem in Tanzania because if cause morbidity and mortality in most of peoples within the country.

 

Most of the people affected physically social-economically, psychologically, culturally and spiritually based on individual family and community at all. But the ranging group which are more affected are youth especially girls or females rather than males or boys through practice of unsafe sexually intercourse and other methods such as blood transfusion and sharing of sharp instruments.

 

The community must taught on how to be prevented from AIDS by practice safe sex through using of condoms.

1.1: BACKGROUND OF HIV/AIDS.

HIV/AIDS is a most sexual transmitted disease that caused by HIV virus. AIDS firstly detected on 1980 at Kagera region in Tanzania. The researchers found that AIDS become leading cause of death among youth.

On 1990s the reduction AIDS through spread was accrued the reasons it was because of due to preference inhibitors which were introduced in 1996, so most of the people were to control high risk of spread of infection because of this drug. The deaths of young adult were increased from years later. It was occurred because of same different perceptions. Most of them they were affected because of due to cultural and customs, lack of enough or poor inadequate knowledge and poverty on thing which increase high risk of getting HIV/AIDS.

But most of adults were affected due to poverty especial for some females and more than males. Further, more HIV/AIDS still do not have treatment rather than there are drugs that prolong life of infected person. Also care although there are some drugs which were already introduced but the drugs only cannot treat HIV/AIDS so the infected people needs comprehensive care. It is more important because the patient of HIV can decided to do anything so without adequate counseling and understanding the importance using and compliance to drugs. Can make us drugs can make easily drugs to fail to respond and making the condition of the patient to be very worse. Therefore both, comprehensive care and this treatment help the patients of aids to survive several years later.

1.2: PROBLEM STATEMENT.

HIV/AIDS is sexual transmitted disease caused by HIV viruses. The mode of transmission is through sexual intercourse with an infected partner also it transmitted through sharing of sharp instruments, blood transfusion of infected individual.

Data obtained from the ministry of health shows the high prevalence of HIV /AIDS to youth. In the year 2016 it was 59%of the people who are infected with HIV, in 2017 was 62%of infected people with HIV.As the time goes on it seems the number of infected youth have tends to increase.

Certain factor that may influence the increase of HIV/AIDS to the youth aged 15-35years could be poverty. Due to this poverty there is lack of income so peoples they cannot afford to have their basic needs so according to this situation peoples they engage in the risk behavior example like prostitute hence make more transmission of HIV/AIDS. also cigarette smoking and alcoholism leads to risk behavior, also many people’s at Likombe health center they have multiple sexual partners also this stimulate on the increase of HIV/AIDS. Also the females of these villages are getting married on the small age. Peer pressure makes the youth to be involved in the risk behavior such as using of drug abuse.

1.3: SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.

The main reason of conducting this research proposal was to find out the answer by using the means to improve the situation that explained above. Suggestions and recommendations was helpful  to youth age 15-35years to understand  about HIV/AIDS and its mode of transmission and how to overcome the problem, also to know on how to give care to the an individual live with aids without getting infections. Also to know the presentation of HIV/AIDS and other health education that consuming with HIV/AIDS and the use up the ARV drugs.

Thorough out the result of the study was helpful to authorities to find ways of controlling other to do further research on youth that are being infected with HIV/AIDS among the societies.

 


1.4: THE DIAGRAM OF PROBLEM ANALYSIS.



CHAPTER 02.

2.0: LITERATURE REVIEW.

HIV infection was acquire through sexual intercourse with an infected partner, exposed to the infected blood products through blood transfusion, also mother to child transmission thorough delivery and breastfeeding, also through sharing the sharp instruments.

Sexual intercourse with infected partners (NACP 2004).HIV/AIDS causes death in African men and women aging of 25-44years old. Most of them are infected through sexual transmission {Susanne.C.Smelttzeranell Brenda in 1999}.HIV/AIDS was commonest in the sexual active age group from 25-34years old. This was the adult group for high and good productivity economically {Eric N2001}

One of the Non government organization was youth volunteers shortly is {YAV}.It advices youth  in Tanzania to be responsible and force respect their gender. And also it contribute  to raise the awareness in reproductive health and also to reduce the stigma and gender distribution of his HIV/AIDS .in the major cause which lead death in Africa and then  it cause death {World wide MOH 2002}

In 2000 person aged from 15-59years detected to study by living with HIV/AIDS. But most of them are detected in 16century which Tanzania was among of those countries. The HIV was easy transmitted through body fluids.

2.1: STUDY OBJECTIVES.

Broad objective.

· Determine factors that was contributing to high prevalence of HIV/AIDS among youth at Likombe health center in Mtwara region.

 

Specific objectives.

· To assess the knowledge of youth towards the HIV/AIDS and modes of its transmission.

· To explore poverty in relation to the youth aged of 15-35years of HIV/AIDS infected.

· To assess peer pressure of different friends on and family within the community

· To assess unfaithfully partners within the community.

 

CHAPTER 03.

 

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY.

 

3.1: STUDY DESIGN.

The study design was descriptive under cross-sectional because it took a short time and therefore it save time for my study.

 

 3.2: STUDY AREA.

The study was conducted at Likombe health center in Mtwara region among the youth who were attended at CTC area at Likombe health center.

 

3.3: STUDY POPULATION.

All males and females who were youth and who where attend at CTC are at Likombe health center were being included in my study.

 

            3.4: SAMPLING PROCEDURES.

           It was randomly selection of participants both client and also staffs most of the      participants are youth they were available during my study.

 

 3.5: SAMPLE SIZE.

                     Will include all youth male and female of age 15-35years who attend at CTC clinic at Likombe health center.

 

            3.6: DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUE.

Data were collected through the structure interview where by using questioners and face to face interview was performed both open ended questions with closed questions which involved use for respondent for who were not able to read and writing

3.6.1 TOOLS AND INSTRUMENTS.

Tools that was used include pens, pencils, plain papers, calculator, rulers and a computer Microsoft word program and Microsoft excel program.

 

 

3.7. DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS

3.7.1Data processing                                                                                                                                           Data were collected and analyzed manually by using paper sheet, notebook, calculator, entered into the computer by using Microsoft word office and Microsoft office Excel spreadsheets. The results will then be summarized in final working research report.

              3.7.2 Data analysis

Data were entered in Microsoft access data base for cleaning and will be analyzed using SPSS software, also by using master sheet and tolling procedures.

 

3.8 DISSEMINATION OF RESULTS.

  The data analysed was presented by using tables, graphs, charts and statistical reports which will be associated with the interpretation of the research results. The results of the research were disseminated back to the participants (respondents) of the research study at Likombe health centre in Mtwara region letting them to know their knowledge and practices towards prevention of HIV/AIDS among the youth. The copy of the research results will be given to the principal of Mtwara collage of health and allied science (MCOHAS), RMO of Likombe Health centre and the other copy will be stored in the library of the collage.

 

 

   3.9. ETHICAL CONSIDERATION.

Before conducting the study, permission was sought from the Region medical officer in charge at Likombe Health Centre.

Interviews was conducted on individuals who was voluntarily accept to be involved in the study despite of their physical and socio-backgrounds, all information obtained will be confidential. Patients’ names will not be used; just the codes were required.

    3.10.  STUDY LIMITATION

                       Reliability of the information given by the participants. The study was conducted at researcher own financial support therefore financial and time is major factors which make hindrance of my study towards sample size that I selected but also the seasonal period a limitation and people were at former for investigation. Two weeks for data collection and analysis was not be enough to accomplish my study.

 

CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH FINDINGS.


This chapter present he result of the specific objectives, the data were collected from 100 correspondents of youth aged 15-35 years old are summarizes in the bar chart shows below…







 

CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION

The aim of this study was to determine the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS among youth and its associated factors at Likombe health center.

5.1 LACK OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT HIV/AIDS TRANSMIISSION.

 The finding shows that 84.4% of the youth they are lack sexual knowledge to prevent themselves for being infected with HIV/AIDS. Most of youth they perform unprotected sexual intercourse without using of condoms.in a study in 1998 only 60% of rural youth mostly get HIV.

5.2: PEER PRESSURE

Other most contributing factor was peer pressure where the filling shows that 80% of the youth used due to peer pressure

The age at which the youth start intercourse was just before 15 years that was reached the age of puberty as to the extends of involvement in intercourse.

Generally hypothesis suggest that youth early involvement in intercourse due to modernization which was specifically than fasted in education and urbanization hence this may lead to increase the risk of HIV/AIDS infection.

5.3 POVERT.

The findings show that 71.4% youth who come from poor families are more prone to get HIV/AIDS infection. most of youth depend on the number of economic, social and personal factors. the increase of HIV/AIDS transmission vary between countries because of different in economic, level of sexual activities etc.

Word wide, HIV/AIDS transmission rates range from 143 per 1000 in some sub Saharan Africa country to 2.9 per 100 in south korea (UNICEF july7, 2006)

The health rise of HIV/AIDS transmission coated by their lack access of the partners to be unfaithfully because of economic geographic cultural barriers, also some cultures like wife inheritance, circumcise by local instruments this mainly will contribute to HIV/AIDS transmission among peoples.

CHAPTER 6:1 CONCLUSION

From the finding the study concluded that lack of knowledge, poor life standard, peer pressure, traditional norms, globalization, unfaithfully partners were the major contributing factors on the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS transmission among the youth at Likombe health center in Mtwara region.

6.2 RECOMMENDATION

Based on the result the following are recommendation.

The ministry of education in relation to the ministry of health and social welfare should prepare the program to give education on the sexual health of pupils of primary school and secondary about the HIV/AIDS.

To maintain faithfulness among the partners, hence was prevent risk of HIV/AIDS transmission.to emphasize the use of condoms during sexual intercourse.

By doing this so could reduce the incidence of risk of HIV/AIDS transmission among youth Likombe health center at Mtwara region and all societies as a whole.

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCE.

1. Sangskerg.o>BWOOD R {2003} Adherence is not barrier to successful antiretroviral therapy in south Africa AIDS2003june 13, 17{9}:136975.

2. Behavior surveillance among youth, ministry of health Dar es Salaam {2002}.

3. Carter m [2005] adherence information series for HIV/AIDS people available at HHP: WWWaidmap.com.

4. Caro vainer.1992 more than mothers and whore: redefining the Aids presentation needs of women.

5. Heyse L and Celsius {1995} transforming AIDS presentation to meet moments need a focus on developing, countries social science and medicine40 {7}933-943.

6. Intercourse with infected partner s from national AIDS control program {2004}.karma SA transmutation trial: South Africa view paint AMJ public health 8:56-6, 1998.

7. National guidance for management of HIV ministry of health and social welfare {2009} revised February.

8. Youth action volunteers, ministry of health dare s salaam{2003}

9. Suzanne C.Smellier  and Brenda G.Bare C{1999} medical 2nd  ED.Tokyo.

10. Provide initiated HIV testing and counseling ministry of healthy {2008}.

 

        

            WORK PLAN.

S/N

      ACTIVITY

   DURATION

RESPONSIBLE

1

Proposal writing

06th -08th JANUARY 2021

JOHN LIBERATUS

2

Data collection

09th -11th   JANUARY 2021

JOHN LIBERATUS

3

Data analysis

12th -14th   FEBRUARY 2021

JOHN LIBERATUS

4

Data interpretation

15th-17th   FEBRUARY 2021

JOHN LIBERATUS

5

Research proposal presentation

18th -20th MARCH 2020

JOHN LIBERATUS

6

Research proposal submission.

21 st -22nd   MARCH   2021

JOHN LIBERATUS

 

 RESEARCHER BUDGET.

ITEM

QUANTITY

COST

SUBTOTAL

Rim of plain paper

1

10,000/=

10,000/=

Correction fluid

1

2,000/

2,000/=

\Marker pen

2

@500/=

1,000/=

Pencil

1

100/=

100/=

Ruler

1

300/=

300/=

Pen

5

@400/=

2,000/=

Pencil rubber

1

200/=

200/=

Printing

 

40,000/=

40,000/=

Photocopy

 

20,000/=

20,000/=

Binding

4

1,000/=

4,000/=

Transport

 

8,000/=

8,000/=

Personal food

 

6,000/=

6,000/=

Grand Total

 

93,600/=

93,600/=

 


 

QUESTIONIRES.

STRUCTURED QUESTIONARES ABOUT HIGH PREVALENCE OF HIV/AIDS AMONG THE YOUTH OF NGAMIANI IN TANGA DISTRICT.

INSTUCTIONS:

· The questionnaire should be answered by youth only.

· Do not write your name in this paper provided.

· Put {v} in the space provided.

· Remember to return your paper to the investigation.

 

 

SEX:  MALE [    ]

FEMALE [      ].

 

  AGE:………………….

OCCUPATION:……………..

MARITAL STATUS.

SINGLE [      ]

MARRIED [      ]

LEVEL OF EDUCATION:……………

QUESTIONS THAT PERTAINING TO POVERTY.

1. Is poverty an contribute to increase HIV/AIDS

a) YES                [       ]

b) NO                 [        ]

2. Mention ways you think poverty can cause HIV/AIDS.

a)………………………………………

b)………………………………………

c)……………………………………….

3. Its true that all patients who have affected with HIV/AIDS are poverty people.

a) Yes       [        ]

b) No        [         ]

4. How poverty can contribute the increasing of HIV/AIDS explain

        ……………………………………………………………………………………………

5. Do you think HIV/AIDS can contribute to low economic performance and poverty in the country?

a) Yes     [       ]

b) No       [       ]

 

Question that pertain to poor knowledge on HIV/AIDS.

 

6. Do you have an idea about HIV/AIDS?  Explain

     …………………………………………………………………………..

7. Is HIV /AIDS a penal punishment from god?

a) Yes      [       ]

b) No       [         ]

8. If the answer is yes or no…explain

     ………………………………………………………………………………

9. Is there any drug that can treat to HIV/AIDS?

a) Yes    [       ]

b) No     [       ]

10. Situation of having more than one sexual partner can contribute to HIV/AIDS transmission?

a) Yes     [       ]

b) No       [        ]

 

Question that pertain to peer pressure.

11. Do you know to change behavior concerning sexual intercourse?

a) Yes    [       ]

b) No     [        ]

 

12. Mention factors contributing to spread of HIV/AIDS. Youth

a) …………………………………………………………………….

b) ……………………………………………………………………

 

 

 

13. Do you think alcoholism contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS.

a) Yes   [      ]

b) No    [       ]

14. Do you know means of having safe sex?

a) Yes     [        ]

b) No      [         ]

15. Mention ways of HIV/AIDS transmission.

a) ………………………………………………..

b) ……………………………………………………

c) …………………………………………………..

16. Mention ways of HIV/AIDS prevention

a) ……………………………………………………

b) ………………………………………………………

c) ………………………………………………………

 

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