Bank Of Questions | Pathology | CMT NTA 4

Bank Of Questions | Pathology | CMT NTA 4

1. Involution of the uterus after delivery is an example of :

A. Atrophy

B. Dysplasia

C. Metaplasia

D. Hyperplasia

E. Hypertrophy

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2. The type of necrosis which occur due to loss of blood supply to the lower limb is:

A. Fat necrosis

B. Caseous necrosis

C. Fibrinoid necrosis

D. Gangrenous necrosis

E. Liquefactive necrosis

 

3. Hypoxia causes cell injury by:

A. Inducing the immune response

B. Increasing number  of leukocytes

C. Producing reactive oxygen species

D. Direct causing nucleus disintegration

E. Reducing aerobic oxidative respiration

 

4. Which of the following is plasma-protein mediator of inflammation?

A. Histamine

B. Serotonin

C. Bradykinins

D. Nitric oxide

E. Prostaglandins

 

5. One of the following organism is the most likely cause of non gonococcal Urethritis in males:

A. Staphylococcal aureus

B. Chlamydia trachomatis

C. Escherichia coli

D. Streptococcal pyogenes

E. Mycobacterium tuberculosis

 

 

6. The condition where by endometrial glands and stroma are located outside the endometrium is termed as:

A. Cervicitis

B. Endometritis

C. Adenomyosis

D. Endometriosis

E. Adenocarcinoma

 

7. Progressive inflammation and fibrosis of liver parenchyma is a most likely to result in:

A. Hepatitis

B. Cirrhosis

C. Fatty liver

D. Liver abscess

E. Heamochromatosis

 

8. Atherosclerosis of coronary blood vessels result to which type of necrosis:

A. Fat necrosis

B. Caseous necrosis

C. Gangrenous necrosis

D. Liquefactive necrosis

E. Coagulative necrosis

 

9. The major difference between cerebral oedema and hydrocephalus is that in cerebral oedema:

A. There is massive increase in intracranial pressure

B. The choroid plexus are producing more CSF than usual

C. There is increase in CSF volume in the ventricular system

D. There is accumulation of fluid within the brain parenchyma

E. The brain becomes large due to increase in intracranial pressure.

 

10. Emboli blocking the cerebral blood vessels often originate from the:

A. Lung

B. Heart

C. Pelvis

D. Brain stem

E. Lower limb

 


SECTION B: MULTIPLE TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS 10

Instructions:

· This section consists of Four (4) questions with five (5) options each

· Write the word “TRUE” and NOT letter ‘T’ for a correct statement and the word “FALSE” NOT letter ‘F’ for incorrect statement in the space provided before each option

· All responses should be in CAPITAL letters

· Half (1/2) a  will be awarded for each correct response

· Responses with letters ‘T’ and ‘F’ will not be awarded any  

· There will be a penalty of half (1/2) of allocated  for responses with small letters.

 

1. Regarding apoptosis in physiological situation:

A. FALSE  Cell death during mycobacterium infection.

B. FALSE Atrophy of parenchymal organs after duct obstruction

C. FALSE  Elimination of damaged cell after exposure to radiation.

D. TRUE    Programmed destruction of cells during embryogenesis.

E. TRUE    Elimination of potentially harmful self – reactive lymphocytes.

 

2. Steps of phagocytosis during inflammation include:

A. FALSE  Transient vasoconstriction of small arteries.

B. TRUE  Killing or degradation of the ingested material.

C. FALSE  Migration of leukocytes across the vascular wall

D. TRUE  Engulfment and formation of vacuoles by leukocytes

E. TRUE   Recognition and attachment of stimulus particles to the leukocytes

 

3. Innate immunity include:

A. FALSE  Antibodies

B. FALSE   Plasma cells

C. TRUE  Epithelial barriers

D. TRUE  Complement system

E. FALSE  B and T- lymphocytes

 

4. The following are Fungal infection diseases:

A. FALSE  Filariasis

B. FALSE  Giardiasis

C. TRUE Tinea pedis

D. TRUE  Candidiasis

E. TRUE  Histoplasmosis

 

 

 

 

SECTION C: MATCHING QUESTIONS 10

Instructions:

· This section consists of two (2) questions of matching with five (5) options each

· Match the items from column B with those in column A by writing the letter of correct response in the space provided on each option. USE CAPITAL LETTERS

· Each correct response is awarded one (1)

Each item from column B is used only once

 

I. Match the actions from COLUMN B with their corresponding mediators of inflammation in COLUMN A

S/N

ANSWER

COLUMN A

(Mediators of inflammation)

COLUMN B

(Actions)

1.

A

Chemokines

A

Chemo taxis and leukocytes activation

2.

F

Serotonin

B

Chemo taxis and tissue damage                                                                        

3.

H

Prostaglandins

C

Killing of microbes and tissue damage

4.

D

Nitric oxides

D

Vascular smooth muscles relaxation and killing of microbes

5.

C

Reactive oxygen species

E

Vasodilatation, increase in vascular  permeability and endothelial damage

 

 

 

F

Vasodilatation, increase vascular permeability and leukocyte activation

 

 

 

G

Vasodilatation, Leukocyte chemotaxis and activation       

 

 

 

H

Vasodilatation, pain and fever

 

II. Match the disease condition from COLUMN B with their corresponding affected       Organ in COLUMN A.

S/N

ANSWER

 COLUMN A

 (Affected organs)

COLUMN B

 (Disease conditions)

1.

C

Testes

A

Adenomyosis

2.

G

Fallopian tube

B

Balanitis

3.

A

Uterus

C

Cryptorchidism

4.

D

Ovary

D

Luteal cyst

5.

B

Penis

E

Prostatitis

 

 

 

F

Pyelonephritis

 

 

 

G

Salpingitis

 

 

 

H

Vaginitis

SECTION D  SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS 40

Instructions:

· This section consists of Eight (8) questions.

· Write your answers in the space provided on each question.

Write a readable handwrite; DIRTY WORK IS NOT ALLOWED

 

1. Mention four (4) major morphological patterns of inflammation. (4 )

 

Answer (4 points @ 1 )

i. Serious inflammation

ii. Fibrinous inflammation

iii. Suppurative or purulent inflammation

iv. Ulcers

 

2. Mention one (1) effect of chronic alcoholism on each of the following:

a) Nervous system (1 )

 

Answer

i. Peripheral neuropathy

ii. Wernike- korsakoff syndrome

iii. Stroke

 

b) Gastrointestinal tract (1 )

 

Answer

i. Massive bleeding from gastritis and ulcer

ii. Gastric cancer

iii. Colonic cancer

 

c) Liver (1 )

 

Answer

i. Hepatitis

ii. Cirrhosis

iii. Hepatoma

 

d) Heart (1 )

 

Answer

i. Dilated congestive cardiomyopathy

ii. Myocarditis

iii. Atrial fibrillation

 

e) Oral cavity (1 )

 

Answer

i. Cancer

ii. Tooth decay

 

3. List six (6) Broad categories of causes of cell injury (6 )

 

Answer (any 6 points @ 1 )

iii. Oxygen deprivation

iv. Physical agents

v. Chemical agents and drugs

vi. Infectious agents

vii. Immunological reaction

viii. Genetic derangements

ix. Nutritional imbalances

 

4. Enumerate five (5) systemic effects of chronic inflammation (5 )

Answer (any 5 points@1 )

i. Fever

ii. Anaemia

iii. Leukocytosis

iv. Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate

v. Amyloidosis

 

5. a)   List two (2) types immunity (2 )

 

Answer (2 points@1 )

i. Innate immunity

ii. Adaptive immunity

 

b)   List four (4) causes of secondary immunodeficiency (4 )

Answer (any 4 points@1 )

x. Infections like HIV

xi. Nutritional deficiency (malnutrition)

xii. Therapies (cancer chemo, steroids)

xiii. Aging

xiv. Autoimmunity

xv. Endocrine diseases eg DM

xvi. Malignancies

 

6. 
Outline four (4) stages during pathogenesis of pneumococcal pneumonia (4 )

 

Answer (4 points@1)

i. Congestion

ii. Red hepatization

iii. Gray hepatization

iv. Resolution

 

7. List five (5) outdoor air pollutants (5 )

 

Answer (any 5 points@1 )

i. Ozone

ii. Nitric oxide

iii. Sulfuric dioxide

iv. Acid aerosols

v. Carbon monoxide

vi. Particulates

 

8. Outline five (5) clinically useful serum tumour ers (5 )

 

Answer (5 points@1 )

i. Human chorionic Gonadotrophin (HCG)

ii. Alpha feto-protein ( AFP )

iii. Carcino – embryonic Antigen (CEA)

iv. Prostate acid phasphates

v. Paraproteins ( Monoclonal immunoglobulins)

vi. calcitonin



SECTION E: GUIDED EESSAY QUESTION 30

Instructions

· This section consists of three (3) questions which are supposed to be answered in a narrative way

· Write your answer on the blank pages of this question paper; each question should start on a new page

· There will be a penalty of three (3)  from score attained in this section if question(s) is/are not answered in essay form

 

1. Describe the major differences between benign and malignant neoplasms (10 )

Answer

Definition (2 )

Neoplasm is an abnormal mass of tissue.  The growth which exceeds, and is uncoordinated with that of the normal tissue and persists in the same excessive manner after cessation of the stimuli which evoked the change

 

Differences (4 points @ 2 )  

· Degree of differentiation

Benign – well differentiated

Malignant – range from well differentiated poorly differentiated to undifferentiated.

 

· Rate of growth

Malignant tumor grows more rapidly than do benign tumor.

 

· Local invasion

Benign most do not have capacity to infiltrate or invade as do malignant tumor.

 

· Metastasis

With few exceptions malignant tumors can metastasize

Benign – do not metastasize.

 

2. Describe the effects of cigarette smoking to human health. (10 )

Answer

Effects (5 point@2) 

· Chronic respiratory diseases (OPD) etc.

Chronic bronchitis

Emphysema

· Cancers – of respiratory, pancreases, lip pharynx, GIT, liver etc.

· Cardiovascular diseases

Increase risk of atherosclerosis

Myocardial infarction

Hypertension

· Gastrointestinal tract – increase risk of peptic ulcer disease.

· Maternal smoking

Abortion

Low birth weight

Congenital anomalies

· CNS ; Stroke

· Reduced fertility

 

3. Describe the mechanism and different types of hypersensitivity reaction (10 )

 

Answer

 

Definition (2 )

Hypersensitivity is the pathological reaction of the immune system which occur during the     repeated exposure to the same antigen in a previously sensitized individual.

 

Types (4 points each 2 )

· Type I hypersensitivity

Production of lg E antibody – immediate release of vasoactive amines and other mediators, later recruitment of inflammatory cells

 

· Type II hyper sensitivity (Antibody-mediated)

Production of antibodies – bind to the antigen and phagocytosis follows.

 

· Types III hypersensitivity (immune – complex)

Deposition of antibody antigen complex to the tissue evokes the immune reaction.

 

· Type IV hypersensitivity (cell – mediated)

Activated lymphocytes – release chemicals which evokes further inflammation

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