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Environmental Health Notes Za Wizara Cmt Nta 4 Clinical Medicine First Year

Example of Environmental Health notes za wizara of cmt nta level 4 clinical medicine first year as below shown, after this example of notes of wizara below there is directly download link to download Environmental Health notes za wizara.


Environment: A collective term used to describe all the living and non-living things that make up our surroundings.

 

Health: Defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a state of complete

physical, mental and social well being not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

 

Environmental Health: The body of knowledge concerned with the prevention of  diseases through control of biological, chemical, or physical agents in air, water and food,  and the control of environmental factors which may have an impact on well-being of  people.

 

DOWNLOAD HERE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH NOTES ZA WIZARA CMT NTA 4

 

Environmental Health Related Acts

There are important laws that are related to health of individuals and the environment

There are many but in this discussion we will discuss three laws or Acts:

o The Environmental Health Practitioners Act 2007

o Occupational Health and Safety Act (2003)

o The Protection from Radiation Act 1983

It is important for any clinician to understand them in order to provide correct referrals  with good judgment

 

 

The Environmental Health Practitioners Act 2007

An Act to provide for the establishment of the Council to regulate the conduct of and registration of Environmental Health Practitioners and to provide for related matters.’

o Enacted by Parliament of the United Republic of Tanzania

o Act applies only for Tanzania mainland and it has been formulated to enable the  establishment of the Council whose major role is registration of the Environmental Health Practitioners

o The Council has three committees:

ƒ Environmental Health Practice and Control Committee

ƒ Registration Committee

ƒ The Disciplinary and Ethics Committee

 

Functions of the Councils Committees

Environmental Health Practice and Control Committee

o To scrutinize curriculum for the training of environmental health professionals

o To advise the Council on the development of environmental health policy in the country

 

Registration Committee

o To scrutinize all applications submitted to the Council for registration

o To advise the Council on applications which shall be approved or disapproved in  accordance with the provisions of this Act

o To prescribe and evaluate qualifications for registrations under this Act and make

recommendations to the Council

The Disciplinary and Ethics Committee

o To scrutinize all allegations of professional misconduct submitted to the Council

o To advise the Council on those allegations which should be followed up whether by writing, physical visiting, interviews or holding of inquiry as condition may be

o To conduct investigations into any case where it is alleged that a registered Environmental Health Practitioner has misbehaved or who are found to have  committed professional misconduct

 

 

Occupational Health and Safety Act (2003)

‘An Act to repeal the Factories Ordinance; to make provisions for the safety, health and welfare of persons at work in factories and other places of work- to provide for the protection of persons other than persons at work against hazards to health and safety arising out of or in connection with activities of persons at work, and to provide for connected matters.’

o Enacted by Parliament of the United Republic of Tanzania

o This act makes it necessary for employers to establish health and safety committees for workers and their representation is stated in the act

 

 

DOWNLOAD HERE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH NOTES ZA WIZARA CMT NTA 4

Health and Safety Committee

The functions of the health and safety committees are as follows:

o May make recommendations to the employer or, where the recommendations fail to  resolve the matter, to an inspector regarding any matter affecting the health or safety of persons at the factory or workplace or any section for which such committee has been established

o Shall discuss any incident at the factory or workplace in which, or in consequence of which, any person was injured, became ill or died, and may report the incident to an inspector in writing

o Shall keep record of each recommendation made to an employer in terms of the previous two points

o Shall perform such other functions as may be prescribed

 

 

Employer’s Responsibility

An employer shall take the prescribed steps to ensure that a Committee complies with the provisions of this Act in the performance of the duties assigned to it under this Act

 

The Protection from Radiation Act 1983

‘An Act to establish the National Radiation Commission and to provide for its functions  in relation to the control of the use of radioactive material and for other matters connected with the protection of person from harm resulting from ionizing radiation.’

o Enacted by the Parliament of the United Republic of Tanzania

o The National Radiation Committee oversees the implementation of all set standards

that govern the protection from radiation to the environment

o This Act, and the functions of its committees, is important for any clinician to

understand because in our working environment we use equipments and reagents that

contain radioactive materials

 

Classification of Environment

Physical environment: Consists of air, water, soil, climate, and other physical conditions

Biological environment: All living things, including the plants, animals and microorganisms

Social and cultural environment: Manmade entities, including the family, village, culture, beliefs

Economic and political environment: Consists of political nature of the population, including economies and governing systems

 

 

Types of Environment and their Effects on Health

Effect of the Physical Environment on Health

Air pollution

o Harmful gases or particles may be inhaled by people or animals or may attack the skin causing disease or death

o Gases may damage leaves and shoots of plants reducing amenity and the yields of crops and trees

o Particles of substances, which settle into soil or vegetation, may damage or

contaminate human or animal food

o Air pollution can screen sunlight, corrode structures and be a nuisance in many ways, especially through smells and settlement of airborne dust

 

Water pollution

o Exposure to polluted water may cause spread of water borne diseases, including  typhoid, cholera and amoebic dysentery

o Hygiene is impossible to maintain without adequate and clean water supply

 

Improper land and soil use

o Poorly planned or unplanned towns and cities facilitate transmission of disease such as respiratory infections, malaria and cholera

o Inefficient drainage of surface water creates favourable breeding sites for vector borne and or water borne diseases, including malaria and dysentery

o Improper agriculture activities (over use of fertilizers and pesticides) may cause occurrence of chronic diseases


Effect of the Biological Environment on Health

Biological hazards include certain bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as certain plants, mushrooms, and fish that carry harmful toxins

Disease causing microbacteria are responsible for the majority of food borne illness

outbreak

 

Effect of the Social and Cultural Environment on Health

Refers to the culture, customs and social set up of the community

Some cultures, social activities or practices that affect the health of the people:

o Female circumcision

o Defecating around the bush

o Children and females not being allowed to eat eggs

o Polygamy

 

Effect of the Economic and Political Environment on Health

A lack of political will on health issues may facilitate spread of diseases to the population

o For example a lack of policy on prevention, treatment and control of certain diseases or health conditions found in the community my help to spread disease

Political instability may lead to an increased displacement of people which does not coincide with the available health resource and infrastructures

o It is very costly to control diseases in refugee camps

Political Instability also facilitates life insults like raping, increased children employment  and family disruptions, which all have negative effects on health

Poverty leads to poor health

o A community with a low income is less able afford to have an adequate medical supply, quality food, or quality sanitary measures which all combine to facilitate a spread of disease

Key Points

The environment is all living and non-living things that make up our surroundings.

Three important laws that are related to individual and environmental health are:

o The Environmental Health Practitioners Act 2007

o The Occupational Health and Safety Act 2003

o The Protection from Radiation Act 1983

The environment is classified into four types: physical, biological, social-cultural and political-economic.

Each of the four types of environment has its own effect on health.

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