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Microbiology, Parasitology & Entomology Notes Za Wizara Cmt Nta 4 Clinical Medicine First Year

Microbiology, Parasitology & Entomology Notes Za Wizara Cmt Nta 4 Clinical Medicine First Year

Example of microbiology, parasitology and entomology notes za wizara of cmt nta level 4 clinical medicine first year as below shown, after this example of notes of wizara below there is directly download link to download microbiology, parasitology and entomology notes za wizara.

Definition of Gram Negative Bacteria

Gram negative Bacteria: Bacteria which appears red, after losing the colour of primary stain and adapting the colour of a counter stain (dilute carbofuchsin or safranin, or neutral red) when stained by Gram stain.


Examples of Gram negative bacteria of medical  importance

Examples of Gram negative bacteria of medical importance are

1. Neisseria species

2. Salmonella species,

3. Haemophilus species, and Vibrio cholera.

 

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Structure of Gram negative bacteria

External membrane is dissolved during the Gram stain, washing off the first dye.

Cells uptake the second dye (safranin or fuchsin) and turn RED

 

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)

1. Endotoxin or Pyrogen

i. Fever causing

ii. Toxin nomenclature

Endo- part of bacteria

Exo- excreted into environment

2. Structure

i. Lipid A

ii. Polysaccharide

iii. O Antigen

 

Characteristics of Gram Negative Cocci

a. Bean shaped cocci

b. The pathogenics are intracellular (they live inside the host cell normally polymorphonuclear cells like macrophages)

c. Oxidase positive

d. Have pilli

e. Non motile

f. Non sporing

 

Classification of Gram Negative Bacilli (rods) of Medical Importance

A. According to the Site of Infection :

i. Those related to gastrointestinal tract .

Examples, Eschelichia colli, Salmonella species, Shigella species, Vibrio species (Enterobacteriaceae) ii.

ii. Those related to respiratory tract.

Example, Haemophilus species

iii. Related to Reticulo endothelial organs like liver and spleen

Example, Brucella species

 

B. According to Animal Source :

 Those which are transmitted from animals to humans (zoonotic organisms)

    Examples Brucella species and Yersinia species

 

Characteristics of Vibrio Cholera and Escherichia Coli

V. Cholerae

i. Curved, comma shaped Gram negative rod

ii. Oxidase positive

iii. Motile

iv. Tolerant to alkaline environment

v. Grows rapidly in the pH range of 7.4 to 9.6

vi. Facultative anaerobe

 

E.Coli  Characteristics:

i. Motile with or without capsule

ii. Facultative anaerobe

iii. Capable of growing at 44 Degrees Centigrade

iv. Lactose fermentors


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Characteristics of Shigella and Salmonella

i. Gram negative rods (GNR)

ii. Non spore forming

iii. Capable of aerobic and anaerobic respiration  



Characteristics of Yersinia and Brucella

Genus Yersinia

The genus Yersinia includes species which are short, pleomorphic Gram-negative rods that can exhibit bipolar staining.

Catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, and microaerophilic or facultatively anaerobic.

Most have animals as their natural hosts, but they can produce serious disease in humans.

 

 

Yersinia species of medical importance includes

a. Yersinia pestis, cause of plague in human

b. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis cause of  disease which resembles tuberculosis

c. Yersinia enterocolitica, important causes of human diarrhea diseases

 

Y. pestis is a Gram-negative rod that exhibits striking bipolar staining with special stains giving its characteristic safety pin appearance.

  1. Not motile
  2. Grows as a facultative anaerobe on many bacteriologic media
  3. Growth is more rapid in media containing blood or tissue fluids and fastest at 30 °C
  4. Aerobic
  5. Oxidase positive  

 

Characteristics of Breucella Group

i. Gram negative rods

ii. Intracellular

iii. Aerobic

iv. Oxidase positive  

v. Non capsulated


 


Haemophilus Species [Haemophilus Influenza and Haemophilus Ducreyi]
General Characteristics :

a. Small non motile Gram negative coccobacillae (rods with round ends)

b. Aerobic

c. Capsulated

 

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IMPORTANT CONCEPT

Gram negative bacteria lose the colour of primary stain and adapt the colour of secondary (Counter stain) stain.

There is a large group of Gram negative bacteria but only some causes diseases to man, including Neisseria spp, Haemophilus spp, Vibrio. Gonorhoea, N.meningitids, Vibrio cholera.

Most of these organisms are diagnosed by doing Gram staining, culture, and serological tests.

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