Past Papers | Environmental Health | Cmt Nta 4 | Clinical Medicine First Year

Past Papers | Environmental Health | Cmt Nta 4 | Clinical Medicine First Year

1. One of the following is not the source of hazardous wastes

a) Agricultural waste

b) Domestic waste

c) Mineral processing sites

d) Health care facilities

e) None of the above

 

2. The following is NOT among the selection criterion for antiseptics and disinfectants

a) Cost effective

b) Safe and non-toxic

c) Known microbial activity

d) Stable in contact with organic matter

e) Highly expensive


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3. Things that must be incinerated include the following

a) PVC plastic

b) Aerosol cans

c) Glass vials

d) Mercury thermometers

e) Expired drugs

 

4. One of the following is not among PPE

a) Gloves

b) Eye wear

c) Caps

d) Boots

e) Scalpels

 

5. The following is not mode of transmission of diseases

a) Contact

b) Droplet

c) Air borne

d) Vector borne

e) Autoimmune

 

  

6. One of the following is not contact based transmission precautions

a) Patient placement

b) Gloving

c) Patient transport

d) Patient feeding

e) Hand washing

 

7. The following is not type of antiseptics

a) Ethanol

b) Chlorhexidedine

c) Centrimide

d) Sodium hypochlorite

e) Povidone Iodine

 

8. The following is not the type of Gloves

a) Surgical gloves

b) Examination gloves

c) Utility gloves

d) Theatre gloves

e) Gauntlet gloves

 

9. The following is not the category of hospital wastes

a) Non-infectious wastes

b) Infectious wastes

c) Highly infectious wastes

d) Toxins

e) Sharps

 

10. Among the following is not part of patient placement

a) Stay at OPD

b) Door closed

c) Room air is exhausted to the outside

d) If private room not available place patient in room with the same condition

e) Private room


SECTION B: MULTIPLE TRUE AND FASLE QUESTIONS (10 )

§ Write TRUE for the true statement and FALSE if the statement is not true

 

1. Contributing factors to nosocomial infections include

a) F........................uncontaminated IV fluid

b) T........................over use of broad spectrum antibiotics

c) F........................safe and necessary injections

d) T........................increased use of invasive medical devices

e) F........................decrease number of people in health facility

 

2. The following statements are true concerning vectors

a) T.......................disease transmitted by vectors are among major causes of illness and death

b) T.......................such diseases include malaria, filariasis and schistosomiasis

c) T........................it results into high cost of treating the side and controlling the vectors

d) T........................large campaigns of vectors are often unworkable for both financial and practical reasons

e) T........................attention has been shifted to individual methods and communities to protect themselves from vector borne diseases

 

3. Concerning the roles of PPE

a) T.........................controls hazard at the source

b) T.........................eliminate hazards from work place

c) T..........................isolate hazards from workers

d) T..........................additional of safety feature to the existing equipment

e) T...........................facilitate redesigning of the work process or purchasing new equipment

 

4. Concerning antiseptics and disinfectants

a) T............................antiseptics are used for treatment of inanimate objects

b) F............................disinfectants are applied to living tissues

c) F............................ example of antiseptic is Glutaral

d) F............................. example of disinfectant is povidone Iodine

e) F..............................both are not effective against disease causing pathogens



SECTION C: MATCHING ITEMS(10 )

· Match an item in COLUMN A with the corresponding answer in COLUMN B

 

S/No

COLUMN A

COLUMN B

1

Mosquito.................................B

A. Cause nuisance and lack of sleep at night

2

Tsetse flies............................E

B. Filariasis

3

House flies..........................F

C. Schistosomiasis

4

Ticks ....................................I

D. Leishmaniasis

5

Mites....................................D

E. Sleeping sickness

 

 

F. Transmit bacteria from decay matter

 

 

G. Transmit bacteria from human excreta

 

 

H. Plague

 

 

I. Relapsing fever

 

 

J. Tungiasis

 

 

· Match an item in COLUMN A with the corresponding answer in COLUMN B  

 

1.CapsE

A.Used for protective isolation

2.BootsD

B.They are fluid resistant

3.GownA

C.Provides water proof

4.ApronsC

D.Protect feets from injuries

5.MasksB

E.Protects the scalps

 

F.Protects against radiation

 

G.Protects eyes

 

H.Should be worn any where


SECTION D: SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS (40 )

1. Mention the sources of Health Care Wastes and Hazardous materials (5)

a) Agricultural activities...................................................................................

b) Domestic activities.........................................................................................

c) Mines and Industrial activities........................................................................

d) Healthy care  facilities....................................................................................

e) Commercial wastes.........................................................................................

 

2. Outline 5 Personal Protective Equipments (5)

a. Gloves............................................................................................................

b. Gown.............................................................................................................

c. Apron............................................................................................................

d. Masks.............................................................................................................

e. Caps...............................................................................................................

f. Eyewear

g. Boots

 

3. List any 5 Minimum Requirement for Wastes bins and Receptacles (5)

a) Portable................................................................................................................

b) Disinfected and washable after use.....................................................................

c) Made of non-corrosive materials...................................................................

d) Colour coded..................................................................................................

e) Be leak proof...................................................................................................

 

4. What are thereasons for proper disposal of the dead bodies (5,)

a) To avoid nuisance........................................................................................

b) To avoid contamination.................................................................................

c) To avoid unsightly condition.......................................................................

d) To eliminate spread of diseases.............................................................

e) To avoid swarms of files.....................................................................................

 

 

5. Mention five (5)Indicators for Sterilization Monitoring

a) Mechanical indicators

b) Chemical indicators

c) Biological indicators

d) Timer

e) Pressure gauge

f) Temperature gauge

 

6. List 5 Impact of nosocomial infection (5,)?

a) Emotional stress........................................................................................

b) Functional disability.................................................................................

c) Reduced quality of life.............................................................................

d) Costful......................................................................................................

e) Expensive services eg. Lab  investigation................................................


7. Outline 5 Things that must not be incinerated (5,)

a) Batteries................................................................................................................

b) Mercury thermometers....................................................................................

c) X-materials......................................................................................................

d) PVC plastics...................................................................................................

e) Glass vials..........................................................................................................

f) Aerosol cans


8. List 5 Contact Based Precausion (5,)

a) Patient Placement.........................................................................................

b) Gloving........................................................................................................

c) Hand washing................................................................................................

d) Patient transportation.....................................................................................

e) Patient care equipment...................................................................................

f) Respiratory protection


SECTION E: ESSAY QUESTIONS(30 )

1. Write an essay on Instructions for Skin Preparation . 6 POINTS

Ø Do not shave hair around the operative site

Shaving increases the risk of infection because the tiny nicks in the skin provide an

ideal setting for microorganisms to grow and multiply

o If hair must be cut, trim the hair close to the skin surface with scissors immediately

before surgery

Ø Ask the patient about allergic reactions (e.g. to iodine preparations) before selecting an

antiseptic solution

Ø If the skin or external genital area is visibly soiled, gently wash it with soap and clean

water and dry the area before applying the antiseptic

Ø Do not allow the antiseptic to pool underneath the client’s body, this can irritate or burn

the skin

Ø Using dry, sterile forceps and new cotton or gauze squares soaked in antiseptic,

thoroughly cleanse the skin

Ø Work from the operative site outward for several centimeters

Ø A circular motion from the center out helps to prevent recontamination of the operative

site with local skin bacteria

Ø Use sterile gauze or cotton swab/pad to clean the skin prior to surgery

Ø Allow the antiseptic enough time to be effective before beginning the procedure

o For example, when an iodophor is used, allow 2 minutes or wait until the skin is visibly dry


2. During practical sessions as students of clinical medicine, one of your group member acquire a needle prick injury of contaminated needle from the patient known to have HIV and Hepatitis B virus

a) Define (PEP) post exposure prophylaxis

b) What are the steps and guidelines for PEP admission?

Ø Step 1; Treatment of Exposure site

Ø Step 2;Report and document

Ø Step 3;Evaluate the Exposure

Ø Step 4;Evaluate the exposure source

Ø Step 5;Follow up

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