PHARMACOLOGY ORAL QUESTIONS | CMT NTA LEVEL 5 | DOWNLOAD

 PHARMACOLOGY ORAL QUESTIONS | CMT NTA LEVEL 5 | DOWNLOAD

1. Define the following terms

Ø Pharmacology

Ø Drug

 

2. Define the following terms

Ø Half life

Ø Antagonist drug

 

 DOWNLOAD HERE PHARMACOLOGY ORAL QUESTIONS | CMT NTA LEVEL 5

 

3. Distinguish pharmacokinetics from pharmacodynamics

4. Mention four parameters of pharmacokinetics

5. Differentiate efficacy from potency

6. Define the following terms

Ø Antibiotics

Ø Synergism

7. Differentiate bacteriostatic drugs from bacteriocidal drugs as far as antibiotics are concerned.

8. Mention four classes of antibiotics based on mechanism of actions

9. Mention four classes of antibiotics based on their chemical structures

10. Mention four classes of anti-viral drugs based on mechanism of actions

11. Mention four classes of anteretro viral (ARV) drugs commonly used in Tanzania

12. Give four examples of Nucleoside/tide  reverse trancriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)

13. Mention four classes of antifungal drugs  based on mechanism of actions

14. List four common types of anti-helminthics  and state one parasitic worm  for each drug.

15. Describe briefly regimen of treatment of uncomplicated malaria of 60kg old man

16. Mention the dosage of anti malarial drugs for complicated malaria

17. Mention four drugs used in first line regimen as anti TB drugs in Tanzania

18. Mention common types of drugs used in leprosy treatment

19. List two groups of medicines that are used in the management of asthma

20. Briefly describe any two classes of drugs used in treatment of peptic  ulcers

21. Oral rehydration solution is a first line in management of acute diarrhea. Mention four components of it.

22. Mention classification of laxatives

23. Classify anti-arrythymia drugs (any four classes)

24. Describe the pharmacodynamics of digoxin

25. Briefly describe any two classes of anti-angina drugs

26. Mention  four  therapeutic  strategies in management of congestive heart failure

 

27. Mention four classes of drugs used in treatment of heart failure

28. Mention four classes of drugs used in treatment of hypertension

29. With one example, mention four classes of diuretics

30. Explain therapeutic uses of corticosteroid

31. With one major function, mention two major classes of adrenocorticoid hormones

32. Mention four classes of oral hypoglycemic agents/drugs used in Tanzania

33. Describes the pharmacokinetics of metformin as ati diabetic agent

34. With example, give four types of insulin used in clinical settings

35. Describe mode of action of oxytocics

36. Describe different types and therapeutic uses of oxytocics

37. Classify the oral contraceptives

38.  Describe the pharmacokinetics of metronidazole

39. Describe the pharmacodynamic of gentamycin as aminoglyoside

40. Describe the pharmacokinetics Salbutamol

 

1. Define the following terms

Ø Pharmacology:  The study of substances(drug) that interact with living systems through chemical processes, especially by binding to regulatory molecules and activating or inhibiting normal body processes

Ø Drug :  A drug may be defined as any substance that brings about a change in biologic function through its chemical actions

 

2. Define the following terms

Ø Half life:   The time required for the drug concentration in the body to reduce by 50% of its original concentration.

Ø Antagonistic effect: The effect of two or more drugs such that the combined effect is less than the sum of the effects produced by each agent separately

 

3. Distinguish pharmacokinetics from pharmacodynamics

Ø Pharmacokinetics: Refers to what the body does to the drug.

Ø Pharmacodynamics: Refers to what the drug does to the body.

                       o The study of the relationship of drug concentration to drug effects

 

4. Mention four parameters of pharmacokinetics

Ø Absorption

Ø Distribution

Ø Metabolism

Ø Elimination

 

5. Differentiate efficacy from potency

Ø Efficacy): The maximum response a drug can produce.

Ø Potency/ Effective dose (ED50): A measure of the dose that is required to produce  response.  Ameasure of drug activity established by determining the dose of a drug required to produce a standard effect.

 

6. Define the following terms

Ø Antibiotics: Substances produced by some microorganisms (or by pharmaceutical chemists) that kills or inhibits the growth of other microorganisms

Ø Synergism: The summing of the simultaneous effects of two or more drugs such that the combined effect is greater than the effect of either of the drugs when they are given alone

 

7. Differentiate bacteriostatic drugs from bacteriocidal drugs as far as antibiotics are concerned.

Ø Bacteriostatic antibiotic: An antimicrobial drug that inhibits microbial growth but requires host defence mechanisms to eradicate the infection. It does not kill bacteria.

Ø  Bacteriocidal antibiotic: An antimicrobial drug that can eradicate an infection in the absence of host defence mechanisms

 

8. Mention four classes of antibiotics based on mechanism of actions

Ø  Cell wall synthesis inhibitors

Ø Protein synthesis inhibitor

Ø Nucleic acid synthesis inhibitor

Ø Bacterial DNA synthesis Inhibitor

Ø Topoisomerase inhibitor

 

9. Mention four classes of antibiotics based on their chemical structures

Ø B- lactam

Ø Aminogycosides

Ø Quinolones

Ø Sulphonamides

Ø Imidazoles

Ø Retracycline

Ø Macrolides

 

10. Mention four classes of anti-viral drugs based on mechanism of actions

Ø  Non nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors

Ø Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

Ø Protease inhibitors

Ø Integrase inhibitors

 

11. Mention four classes of anti-retro viral (ARV) drugs commonly used in Tanzania

Ø Non nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors

Ø Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

Ø Protease inhibitors

Ø Integrase inhibitors

 

12. Give four examples of Nucleoside/tide  reverse trancriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)

Ø Zidovudine (AZT)

Ø Stavudine (d4T)

Ø  Lamivudine (3TC)

Ø  Didanosine (ddI)

Ø Abacavir (ABC)

Ø Emtricitabine (FTC)

Ø Tenofovir (TDF)

 

13. Mention four classes of antifungal drugs  based on mechanism of actions

Ø  Fungal cell wall synthesis inhibitor

Ø Bind to fungal cell membrane ergosterol

Ø Inhibition of ergosterol and lanosterol synthesis

Ø Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis

Ø Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis

Ø Disruption of mitotic spindle and inhibition of fungal mitosis

 

14. List four common types of anti-helminthics  and state one parasitic worm  for each drug.

Ø Mebendazole – hookworm, whip worm, round worm

Ø Albendazole -- ascariasis, hookworm, infections, strongyloidiasis, trichuriasis,

                        anterobiasis and trichostrongyloidiasis

Ø  Levamisole – tapeworm

Ø Ivermectin -- filarial infections and is very effective in onchocerciasis.

Ø Praziquantel – schistosoma species

Ø Piperazine -- roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) and the threadworm        

                     (Enterobius vermicularis)

 

15. Describe briefly regimen of treatment of uncomplicated malaria of 60kg old man

Ø Treatment with oral ALU

Ø Four tablets 0hours, 8hours, 24hours THEN twice a day for 2 days.

 

16. Mention the dosage of anti malarial drugs for complicated malaria

Ø Artusenate

Ø Artimether

Ø Quinine

 

17. Mention four drugs used in first line regimen as anti TB drugs in Tanzania

Ø  Isoniazid (INH or H)

Ø  Rifampicin (RIF or R)

Ø Pyrazinamide (PZA or Z)

Ø Streptomycin (SM or S)

Ø Ethambutol (EMB or E)

 

18. Mention common types of drugs used in leprosy treatment

Ø Rifampicin

Ø  Dapsone

Ø Clofazimine

 

19. List two groups of medicines that are used in the management of asthma

Ø  Bronchodilators such as adrenoceptors agonist salbutamol

Ø Anti inflammatory drugs such prednisolone

 

 

20. Briefly describe any two classes of drugs used in treatment of peptic  ulcers

Ø  Antacids  - neutralizes acid produced

Ø Proton pump Inhibitor –inhibit H+ pump and reduce acid secretion

 

21. Oral rehydration solution is a first line in management of acute diarrhea. Mention four components of it.

Ø  Sodium chloride

Ø  Potassium chloride

Ø  Glucose anahydrous

Ø Citrate

 

22. Mention classification of laxatives

Ø Bulking  forming drugs

Ø Osmotic drugs

Ø Stimulant drugs

Ø Fecal stimulant drugs

 

23. Classify anti-arrythymia drugs (any four classes)

Ø  Sodium Channel blockers

Ø  Beta adrenoceptors  blockers

Ø Calcium  Channel  blockers

Ø  Potassium  Channel blockers

 

24. Describe the pharmacodynamics of digoxin

Ø  Cardiac glycosides, Digoxin combine reversibly with the sodium-potassium ATPase of the cardiac cell membrane resulting in an inhibition of pump activity.

Ø  Causes an increase in the intracellular sodium concentration, which favors the transport of calcium into the cell via the sodium-calcium exchange mechanism

Ø  The elevated intracellular calcium levels result in an increase in the systolic force of contraction

 

 

25. Briefly describe any two classes of anti-angina drugs

Ø   Glyceryl Trinitrate

Ø  Calcium channel blockers

Ø Beta adrenoceptors blockers

 

26. Mention  four  therapeutic  strategies in management of congestive heart failure

Ø The removal of retained salt and water with diuretics;

Ø  Direct treatment of the depressed heart with positive inotropic drugs such as digitalis glycosides.

Ø Reduction of preload or aflerload with vasodilators.

Ø Reduction of afterload and retained salt and water by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

Ø Recent clinical results show that beta-adrenoceptor blockers and spironolactone, an aldosterone antagonist, also have long-term beneficial effects

 

27. Mention four classes of drugs used in treatment of heart failure

Ø  Diuretics

Ø  Beta adrenoceptors blockers

Ø  Calcium channel blockers

Ø  Angiotensin converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs)

Ø  Angiotensin Receptor blockers (ARBs)

Ø Alpha channel blockers

Ø Glycosides

 

28. Mention four classes of drugs used in treatment of hypertension

Ø   Diuretics

Ø  Beta adrenoceptors blockers

Ø  Calcium channel blockers

Ø  Angiotensin converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs)

Ø  Angiotensin Receptor blockers (ARBs)

Ø Alpha channel blockers

 

 

29. With one example, mention four classes of diuretics

Ø  Loop diuretics

Ø  Potassium sparing

Ø  Thiazides

Ø  Osmotic diuretics

Ø  Carbonic Anhydrase inhibitors

 

30. Explain therapeutic uses of corticosteroid

Ø Glucocorticoids are used as replacement therapy in patients suffering from adrenocortical insufficiency caused by failure, removal, disease or destruction of the pituitary and adrenals.

Ø They are used also in variety of anti-inflammatory conditions, anaphylaxis, asthma, skin conditions, eczema, arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease.

 

31. With one major function, mention two major classes of adrenocorticoid hormones

Ø Glucocorticoids: Are those having important effects on intermediary metabolism and immune function. The adrenal secretes a mixture of glucocorticoids, but the main hormone in humans is cortisol (hydrocortisone).

Ø  Mineralocorticoid, principally salt-retaining activity

                         The mineralcorticoid regulate water and electrolyte balance, and the main      

                         Endogenous hormone is aldosterone

 

32. Mention four classes of oral hypoglycemic agents/drugs used in Tanzania

Ø Insulin Secretogogous such as sulphonylurea

Ø Receptors  Sensitizers such as biguanides

Ø  Alpha glucosidase inhibitors e.g. acarbose

Ø Peptides analogue such as glucagon like peptide

Ø Gycosurics such as SGLT-2 inhibitors

 

33. Describes the pharmacokinetics of metformin as ati-diabetic agent

Ø Not bind to plasma proteins

Ø  Not metabolized

Ø  Excreted unchanged in urine

Ø T 1/2 2 hr

Ø  Does not lead to hypoglycemia when used alone I.e. is anti-hyperglycemic  

 

34. With example, give four types of insulin used in clinical settings

Ø Fast acting insulin such as Lispro

Ø Short acting insulin such as soluble/regular

Ø Intermediate acting such as lente

Ø Long acting insulin such as ultralente

 

35. Describe mode of action of oxytocics

Ø Oxytocin inhibits cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), leading to an increase intracellular calcium and hence in the frequency and force of contraction

 

36. Describe different types and therapeutic uses of oxytocics

Ø  Oxytocin  - used for induction/ augmentation of labour

Ø Ergot alkaloids – used fot PPH control

Ø Prostaglandins – induction of labor and cervix ripening

 

37. Classify the oral contraceptives

Ø Combinations of an oestrogen with a progestogen (the combined pill)

Ø  Progestogen alone (the progestogen-only pill).

 

38.  Describe the pharmacokinetics of metronidazole

Ø  Metronidazole is usually given orally and is rapidly and completely absorbed, achieving peak plasma concentration in 1-3 hours, with a half-life of about 7 hours. Rectal and intravenous preparations are also available

Ø  It is distributed rapidly throughout the tissues, reaching high concentrations in the body fluids, including the cerebrospinal fluid.

Ø Some is metabolised, but most is excreted in urine by kidney

 

39. Describe the pharmacodynamics of gentamycin as aminogycoside

Ø Aminoglycosides are bactericidal inhibitors of protein synthesis.

Ø  Aminoglycosides bind to the 30S ribosomal subunit and interfere with protein synthesis by changing shape of 30S portion.

 

40. Describe the pharmacokinetics Salbutamol

Ø Salbutamol is well absorbed when given orally with a peak plasma concentration being achieved in about 6 hours. Therefore, it is available as tablets, syrup, and aerosol/ inhalation

Ø Well distributed

Ø Metabolized by the liver

Ø Excreted by kidney

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