Bank Of Questions | Physiology | CMT NTA 4

Bank Of Questions | Physiology | CMT NTA 4

 1. Define physiology

is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which operate within a living system.




2. Mention the levels of organization in the body

-Chemical and or molecular level

-Cell level

-Tissue level

-Organ level

-Organ system level


3. Define homeostasis

-Is maintenance of nearly constant conditions in the internal environment.


4. Define feedback mechanism

A feedback mechanism is a process that uses the conditions of one component to regulate the function of the other.


5. Define negative feedback loops

The stimulus produces a response from the effectors that ultimately reduces the stimulus.

Example is squinting of the eyes in bright sunlight


6. Define positive feedback loops

Positive feedback loops: stimulus produces a response which increases the stimulus.

Example: Childbirth

7. Define feed forward mechanisms

some movements of the body occur so rapidly that there is not enough time for nerve signals to travel from the peripheral parts of the body all the way to the brain and then back to the periphery again to control the movement, sensory nerve signals from the moving parts apprise the brain whether the movement is performed correctly. If not, the brain corrects the feed-forward signals that it sends to the muscles the next time the movement is required

8. Outline functions of the blood n

-Supply of oxygen to tissues (bound to haemoglobin which is carried in red cells)

-Supply of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids and fatty acids (dissolved in the blood or bound to plasma proteins (e.g. blood lipids)

-Removal of waste such as carbon dioxideurea and lactic acid

-Immunological functions, including circulation of white cells, and detection of foreign material by antibodies

-Coagulation, which is one part of the body's self-repair mechanism

-Messenger functions, including  the transport of hormones and the signalling of tissue damage

-regulation of body pH (the normal pH of blood is in the range of 7.35 - 7.45)

- Regulation of core body temperature



9. Mention constituents of plasma

The organic components of plasma include:  proteins ,lipids,  carbohydrates

u The main (inorganic) mineral components :

Cations :Anions :  


u Sodium (Na+),                            Chlorides(Cl⁻)

u Potassium (K+),                         Phosphates (PO4⁻)   

u Calcium (Ca++),                          Bicarbonates(HCO3⁻)

u Magnesium (Mg++)                                  


10. Mention functions of plasma

u Transportation

u Regulation  of  oncotic  pressure

u   Regulation  of  pH              

u Defense

Fibrinogen   -         Blood clotting (haemostasis)


11. Mention types of blood groups

A, O, B, AB.

12. Outline functions of red blood cells

The major function of these cells is a transport of haemoglobin, which in turn carries oxygen from lungs to the issues


13. Mention white blood cells differentials and state functions for each


· Neutrophils defend against bacterial or fungal infection and other very small inflammatory processes that are usually first responders to microbial infection; their activity and death in large numbers forms pus.



· Eosinophils primarily deal with parasitic infections and an increase in them may indicate such.

· They are also the predominant inflammatory cells in allergic reactions.

· Basophils are chiefly responsible for allergic and antigen response by releasing the chemical histamine causing inflammation.



· They have the kidney shaped nucleus and are typically agranulated.

· They also possess abundant cytoplasm.

· Monocytes share the ‘vacuum cleaner’ (phagocytosis) function of neutrophils, but are much longer lived as they have an additional role: they present pieces of pathogens to T cells so that the pathogens may be recognized again and killed, or so that an antibody response may be mounted.



· Once monocytes move from the bloodstream out into the body tissues, they undergo changes (differentiate) allowing phagocytosis and are then known as macrophages.



· The blood has three types of lymphocytes.

B cells; which make antibodies that bind to pathogens to enable their destruction.

T cells; these include CD4+ (helper) T cells co-ordinate the immune response (they are what become defective in an HIV infection).

o CD8+ (cytotoxic) are able to kill virus-infected and tumour cells.

o T cells are crucial to the immune response because they possess a unique 'memory' system which allows them to remember past invaders and prevent disease when a similar invader is encountered again.

Natural Killer Cells (NK cells).

o Natural killer cells are able to kill cells of the body that are infected by a virus or have become cancerous.



· They play an important role in controlling blood loss by forming platelets plugs which seal holes in small vessels.


14. Mention clinical importance of white blood cells differentials


15. Mention function of platelets

The main function of platelets is the maintenance of hemostasis. 

16. Mention functions of a spleen

- Site of lymphocyte proliferation

- Immune surveillance and response

- Cleanses the blood: extracts aged and defective blood cells and platelets. Macrophages remove debris and foreign matter from blood flowing through its sinuses

17. Outline 5 constituents of body fluid compartments

i. Sodium

ii. Potassium

iii. Calcium

iv. Magnesium

v. Chloride

vi. Phosphate

vii. Sulphates

viii. Glucose

ix. Amino acids

x. Fatty acids

xi. Hormones

xii. Enzymes

18. Mention 5 differences between ECF and ICF



u Most abundant cation - Na+,

u muscle contraction

u Impulse transmission

u fluid and electrolyte balance

u Most abundant anion - Cl-

u Regulates osmotic pressure

u Forms HCl in gastric acid


Most abundant cation - K+

Resting membrane potential

Action potentials

Maintains intracellular volume

Regulation of pH

 Anion are proteins and phosphates (HPO42-)



19. Mention the constituent of lymph of the lymphatic system

Lymph is a clear, colourless liquid with a composition similar to blood plasma. It is nothing but the clear, watery blood plasma leaked out through the capillary walls to flow around the cells. It contains oxygen, proteins, glucose and white blood cells.


20. Mention the functions of the lymphatic system

a. Transport clean fluids back to the blood

b. Drains excess fluids from tissues

c. Removes “debris” from cells of body

d. It absorbs and transports fat and fat soluble vitamins from the intestine.

e. Kill the micro-organism.

21. Mention components of the respiratory tract

nose and nasal cavity







22. Mention and define the type of cellular respiration

23. Outline the constituents of saliva

water, mucus, various mineral electrolytes, and digestive enzymes including amylase, which begins the breakdown of food starches.



24. Mention  functions of saliva


- Bolus formation

- digestion of carbohydrates; amylase

- anti bacterial, antifungal and antiviral

- taste;gustin

- lubrication: mucin

- reminalization of teeth


25. Outline  constituents of gastric juice

-   Pepsin (the proteolytic enzyme),

- mucin,

- intrinsic factor,

-  gastric rennin, and other gastric enzymes( lysozyme ,carbonic anhydrase ,etc

- Free hydrochloric acid, l

- actic acid and other fermenting acid, sulphates, chlorides, phosphates of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, bicarbonates


26. Mention functions of gastric juice

Pepsin converts proteins into simpler, more easily absorbed substances; it is aided in this by hydrochloric acid, which provides the acid environment in which pepsin is most effective.

Role of HCl


– Acid sterilization

– Activation of pepsinogen

– Promotion of secretin secretion

– Assisted effect of iron and calcium absorption .

Rennin aids the digestion of milk proteins.

 Mucus secreted by the gastric glands helps protect the stomach lining from the action of gastric juice  and aids in lubrication of the mucosal surface.

 Intrinsic factor is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12

27. Mention gastric enzymes



lysozyme ,carbonic anhydrase

28. Outline constituents of intestinaljuices

It contains 98.5% water and 1.5% solids.

- Inorganic constituents

Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium with chloride,bicarbonate and phosphate.

- Organic constituents

Enterokinase- activator of trypsinogen .


Nuclease,  nucleotidase , nucleosidase.

Arginase-acts on arginine producing urea and ornithine .

Amylase ,sucrase, maltase, lactase, and isomaltase .

Also contain mucus which in combination with bicarbonates provides alkaline medium and prevents intestinal  mucosa from acid.              


29. Mention functions of small intestine enzymes

a. Disacccharidases (sucrase, maltase, and lactase) which break disaccharides (sucrose, maltose and lactose) down to monosaccharides (glucose, fructose & galactose)

b. Peptidases, which hydrolyse the peptide bonds between small amino acid chains

c. Nucleases, which break down nucleic acids

d. Intestinal lipase which splits fats into fatty acids and glycerol

30. Outline the functions of the hepatocytes.

metabolic function :carbohydrate metabolism

storage function: glycogen,copper iron

excretion and secretion:bile

protection:kupfer cells

coagulativefunction:production of coagulation function:fibrinogen I ,prothrombinII,factor V,VII etc


31. Outline functions of pancreatic secretions

The enzymes found in pancreatic juice break down all of the major nutrients, including carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

 Bicarbonate is useful in neutralizing the acidic gastric acid, allowing for effective enzymic action(ensuring pH Optimum)

o Proteolytic enzymes the; Trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase  

o They are secreted in their inactive forms as trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, and procarboxypeptidase

§ If were produced in active form they would digest the tissues producing them

§ Within the pancreas, enzyme activation is prevented by an antiproteolytic enzyme secreted by the acinar cells

§ Are enzymes essential for proteins digest and polypeptides

§ Duodenal enzyme, enterokinase, converts trypsinogen to trypsin

§ Trypsin, in turn, activates chymotrypsin, elastase, carboxypeptidase, and phospholipase


32. Define endocrinology

is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones. It is also concerned with the integration of developmental events proliferation, growth, and differentiation, and the psychological or behavioral activities of metabolismgrowth and developmenttissue function, sleep,digestion,

 respirationexcretionmoodstresslactationmovementreproduction, and sensory perception caused by hormones

33. Mention the importance of endocrine system

- The endocrine system, like the nervous system, adjusts and correlates the activities of the various body systems, making them appropriate to the changing demands of the external and internal environment.

- Endocrine integration is brought about by chemical signals secreted by ductless glands and transported in the circulation to target cells.

- The hormones regulate metabolic processes.

- The term metabolism, literally meaning change, is used to refer to all the chemical and energy transformations that occur in the body.

- The animal organism oxidizes carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, producing principally CO2, H2O, and the energy necessary for life processes. CO2, H2O, and energy are also produced when food is burned outside the body.

- In the body, oxidation is not a one-step, semiexplosive reaction but a complex, slow, stepwise process called catabolism, which liberates energy in small, usable amounts. Energy can be stored in the body in the form of special energy-rich phosphate compounds and in the form of proteins, fats, and complex carbohydrates synthesized from simpler molecules.


34. Mention 2 Functions of hypothalamus

- Thermoregulation

- Control pituitary functions

35. Mention 2 parts of pituitary gland

-posterior pituitary

- anterior pituitary gland


36. Mention hormones produced by the anterior pituitary gland

-FSH,LH,prolactin,ACTH,growth hormone.

37. Mention hormones produced by the posterior Pituitary gland

-ADH and oxytocin

38. Mention function of FSH and LH


- Stimulates structure within the ovaries, primary follicle, to grow toward maturity.

- Each follicle contains a developing egg cell (ovum), which is released from the ovary during ovulation.

- FSH stimulate the follicle to synthesize and secrete estrogen (female sex hormones Oestrogen and Progesterone) in the male, FSH stimulates the development of the seminiferous tubules of the testes and maintains spermatogenesis (sperm production) by them.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

· Stimulates the formation and activity of the corpus luteum of the ovary.

· The corpus luteum (meaning yellow body) is the tissue left behind when a follicle ruptures to release its egg during ovulation.

· The corpus luteum secretes progesterone and estrogeus when stimulated by LH.


39. Mention function of growth hormone

- It stimulates growth and division of most body cells especially that of bones and skeletal muscles.

- It also regulates metabolism in many organs example, stimulates protein synthesis and break down of fats.

- Stimulate growth by stimulating the liver to produce certain growth factors, which in turn accelerate amino acid transport into cells.


40. Mention  function of ADH

The main effect of ADH is to regulate fluid balance in the body by reducing the urine output, for instance during thirsty, hypotension and when there is high plasma osmolarity and during stress.


41. Mention function of ACTH

- This increases the concentration of cholesterol and steroids within the adrenal cortex and the output of steroid hormones, especially cortisol.


42. Mention function of oxytocin

- Oxytocin also stimulates contractions of the milk ducts in the breast, which move milk to the nipple (the let-down) in lactating women.

- uterine contractions stimulate the release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary, which, in turn, increases uterine contractions.



43. Mention function of prolactin

- It initiates milk secretion (lactation).


44. Functions of hormones produced by the thyroid gland

Increase metabolic activities.

45. Functions of hormones produced by the parathyroid gland.

Calcium balance


46. Mention hormones produced by the adrenal gland.





47. Mention functions of adrenaline hormone

-flight and fright

48. Mention functions of aldosterone hormone

-Salt balance

49. Mention functions of cortisol

it functions to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis, to suppress the immune system, and to aid in the metabolism of fatprotein, and carbohydrates.[2] It also decreases bone formation.

50. Mention 3 functions of the kidney

-regulating acid-base balanceelectrolyte concentrations, extracellular fluid volume, and blood pressure


51. Mention 5 parts of the nephron

GlomerulusEfferent arterioleBowman's capsule,  Proximal convoluted tubuleCortical collecting duct,. Distal convoluted tubuleLoop of Henle,

52. Function of loop of Henle

- the loop of Henle's main function is to create a concentration gradient in the medulla of the kidney.By means of a countercurrent multiplier system, which utilizes electrolyte pumps, the loop of Henle creates an area of high urea concentration deep in the medulla, near the papillary duct in the collecting duct system


53. Mention functions of glomerulus

Ultra filtration

54. Why are protein molecules not filtrated in the glomerulus?

Because of higher molecular weight

55. Briefly Explain filtration process  

Filtration is movement of fluids across the filtration membrane into the lumen of Bowman’s capsule as results of pressure difference

The fluid entering the nephron is called the filtrate

The filtrate in the glomerolus is similar to plasma with the exception of plasma protein Filtration takes place through the semi permeable walls of the glomerulus and glomerular capsule

The formation of filtrate depend on a pressure gradient, called the filtration pressure, which forces fluid from the glomerular capillary across the filtration membrane into the lumen of Bowman’s capsule


56. Briefly Explain secretion

Selective reabsorption takes place in the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney

It is the process by which certain substances that are required by the body (such as glucose, amino acids, vitamins and water) that have been filtered out of the blood during ultrafiltration, are reabsorbed. As only certain substances are reabsorbed, it is known as selective reabsorption

In this way, many useful solutes (primarily glucose and amino acids), salts and water that have passed in the proximal tubule through the Bowman's capsule, return in the circulation

These solutes are reabsorbed isotonically, in that the osmotic potential of the fluid leaving the proximal tubule is the same as that of the initial glomerular filtrate

However, glucose, amino acids, inorganic phosphate, and some other solutes are reabsorbed via secondary active transport through cotransport channels driven by the sodium gradient out of the nephron


57. Briefly explain tubular reabsorption  

· As the glomerular filtrate enters the renal tubules, it flows sequentially through the successive parts of the tubule-the proximal tubule, the loop of Henle, the distal tubule, the collecting tubule, and, finally, the collecting duct-before it is excreted as urine

· Along this course, some substances are selectively reabsorbed from the tubules back into the blood, whereas others are secreted from the blood into the tubular lumen

· Eventually, the urine that is formed and all the substances in the urine represent the sum of three basic renal processes-glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion-as follows:

o Some substances are removed from blood through the peritubular capillary network into the distal convoluted tubule or collecting duct, by secretion mechanism

o These substances are Hydrogen ions, creatinine, and drugs

o Substances which are not reabsorbed after glomerular filtration and those secreted into the tubules forms the components of Urine

o For many substances, reabsorption plays a much more important role than does secretion in determining the final urinary excretion rate

 Secretion accounts for significant amounts of potassium ions, hydrogen ions, and a few other substances that appear in the urine

58. Define the terms metabolism, catabolism and anabolism

59. Define carbohydrate metabolism

Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formationbreakdown and interconversion of carbohydrates in livingorganisms.

60. identify types of carbohydrates metabolism

Glycolysis - the oxidation metabolism of glucose molecules to obtain ATP and pyruvate[9]

a. Pyruvate from glycolysis enters the Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle, in aerobic organisms after moving through pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.[10]

pentose phosphate pathway, which acts in the conversion of hexoses into pentoses and in NADPH regeneration.[11] NADPH is an essential antioxidant in cells which prevents oxidative damage and acts as precursor for production of many biomolecules.

Glycogenesis - the conversion of excess glucose into glycogen as a cellular storage mechanism; this prevents excessive osmotic pressure buildup inside the cell

Glycogenolysis - the breakdown of glycogen into glucose, which provides a glucose supply for glucose-dependent tissues.

Gluconeogenesis - de novo synthesis of glucose molecules from simple organic compounds. Anexample in humans is the conversion of a few amino acids in cellular protein to glucose.


61. why is ATP used in glycolysis process

This reaction consumes ATP, but it acts to keep the glucose concentration low, promoting continuous transport of glucose into the cell through the plasma membrane transporters. In addition, it blocks the glucose from leaking out – the cell lacks transporters for G6P, and free diffusion out of the cell is prevented due to the charged nature of G6P. Glucose may alternatively be formed from the phosphorolysis or hydrolysis of intracellular starch or glycogen.

62. define gluconeogenesis

 is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydratecarbon substrates. From breakdown of proteins, these substrates include glucogenic amino acids (although not ketogenic amino acids); from breakdown of lipids (such as triglycerides), they include glycerol (although not fatty acids); and from other steps in metabolism they include pyruvate and lactate.

63. mention hormones produced by the pancreas


64. mention functions of insulin and glucagon

glucose balance

65. mention the cells that produce insulin,glucagon and somatostatin

Alpha cells producing glucagon (20% of total islet cells)

Beta cells producing insulin and amylin (≈70%)

Delta cells producing somatostatin (<10%


66. Define protein metabolism

Protein metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the synthesis of proteins and amino acids, and the breakdown of proteins (and other large molecules) by catabolism.

67. Outline the nitrogen cycle

The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into various chemical forms as it circulates among the atmosphereterrestrial, and marine ecosystems. The conversion of nitrogen can be carried out through both biological and physical processes. Important processes in the nitrogen cycle include fixationammonificationnitrification, and denitrification

68. Describe the basic structure of amino acids

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

69. Mention 5 enzymes involved in the digestion of proteins

-rennin, erepsin,pepsin,peptideases,trypsin


70. Mention 5 enzymes involved in the digestion of carbohydrates


- Define transamination

Transaminat ion, a chemical reaction that transfers an amino group to a ketoacid to form new amino acids. This pathway is responsible for the deamination of most amino acids. This is one of the major degradation pathways which convert essential amino acids to nonessential amino acids (amino acids that can be synthesized de novo by the organism).

71. Define deamination

Deamination is the removal of an amino group from moleculeEnzymes that catalyse this reaction are called deaminases.In the human body, deamination takes place primarily in the liver, however glutamate is also deaminated in the kidneys. In situations of excess protein intake, deamination is used to break down amino acids for energy. The amino group is removed from the amino acid and converted to ammonia.


72. Outline  water- soluble vitamins

Vit B and Vit C

73. Outline lipid-soluble vitamins

A,D,E and K

74. Mention  roles of vitamin A in human metabolic processes

Vision, maintenance of epithelial tissue, mucous secretion, growth (formation of bones, teeth), reproduction, and immunity

75. Mention  roles of vitamin B1 in human metabolic processes

Utilized in carbohydrate/protein metabolism for energy release.Contributes to body’s supply of niacin (another B vitamin) by facilitating in the conversion of tryptophan (an amino acid) to niacin.

76. Mention  roles of vitamin B12 in human metabolic processes

Synthesis of the thymine nucleotides of DNA (along with folic acid) and therefore in the synthesis of red blood cells.Metabolism of fatty acids, hence in the formation of myelin (the sheathing around the axons of nerve cells).Carbohydrate metabolism (stabilizes glutathione – a component of enzymes needed in carbohydrate metabolism)

77. Mention  roles of vitamin B6 in human metabolic processes

Synthesis and breakdown of amino acids (hence important in protein metabolism).Conversion of glycogen in  liver and muscle tissue to glucose (hence maintenance of blood glucose levels)Reaction that produces a heme precursor, necessary for formation of haemoglobin.Conversion of amino acid tryptophan to niacin.

78. Mention  roles of vitamin B3 in human metabolic processes

- Utilized in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism.

79. Mention  roles of folate and folic acid in human metabolic processes

- Metabolism of amino acids (conversion of histidine to glutamic acid).Synthesis of thymine (a distinctive component of DNA) and therefore in the formation of red blood cells

80. Mention  roles of vitamin C in human metabolic processes

- Involved in the formation of collagen (major component of connective tissues). Prevents scurvy/enhances wound healing. Enhances absorption of non-haem iron in foods of plant origin (hence important in anaemia prevention). Is an antioxidant (prevents the harmful action of free radicals).

81. Mention  roles of vitamin D in human metabolic processes

- Absorption and metabolism of calcium (hence formation of bones, teeth)

82. Mention  roles of vitamin E in human metabolic processes

- An antioxidantreproduction (enhances fertility), and role in haemoglobin synthesis

83. Mention  roles of vitamin K in human metabolic processes

- Blood coagulation (takes part in synthesis of clotting factor ‘prothrombin’)

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