1. Define health promotion

It is the process of enabling people to increase control over and improve their health. (Ottawa H.P. Charter)

2. Point out 3 MAIN strategies in implementation of health promotion

· Enabling

· Creating environments that are supportive of health

· Advocacy to create the essential conditions for health



3. Give any 4 examples of health promotion activities

· Water and sanitation activities

· Nutrition program for a community

· Infection prevention activities such immunization

· Awareness campaign on HIV testing


4. List 5 principles/major areas of health promotion


· Creating supportive environment

· Reorient health services

· Building public health policy

· Strengthening community actions that is community participation

· Develop personal skills


5. Outline five approaches to health promotion


· Preventive approaches

· Behavior change approach

· Self empowerment approach i.e educational approach

· Social change approach

· The ecological approach



6. Define Public Health

Public health is the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts of society”


7. List any ten diseases of public health importance

· HIV 17%

· Lower Respiratory Infections 11%

· Malaria 7%

· Diarrheal Diseases 6%

· Tuberculosis 5%

· Cancer 5%

· Ischemic Heart Disease 3%

· Stroke 3%

· STDs 3%

· Sepsis 2%


8. Define EMERGING diseases

Emerging Infectious disease that has newly appeared in a population or that has been known for some time but is rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range.


9. Mention any FIVE examples of EMERGING diseases

· Influenza.

· Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)

· Rabies.

· SARS coronavirus.

· Tick-borne encephalitis virus.

· Tick-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses.


· Dengue









10. Define the term DISEASE TREND

DEFINITION: The number of cases a disease produces in a defined population within a given time period

• The disease trends can be presented by bar charts or liner regression graphs.

• It can be progressive or regressive


11. Point out any 4 resources used for disease prevention and control for disease of public health importance


· Human resources

· Material and supplies

· Funds

· Media

· Drugs and medicine

· Control programs

· Surveillance studies


12.  Define primary prevention and point out two examples


· Refers to the Methods to avoid occurrence of disease either through eliminating disease agents or increasing resistance that both prevent disease and create a sense of overall well being

· Examples includes immunization against disease, eating nutritious meals,exercising daily


13. Define secondary prevention and point out examples of secondary preventive measures


· Refers to the Methods to detect and address an existing disease prior to appearance of symptoms

· Examples include treatment of HTN, treatment of Diabetes Milletus




14. Define primal prevention and state two examples

· Refers to measure designed to avoid development of risk factors in the first place , early in life

· examples: giving FEFO to prevent Spina Bifida, giving ARV to HIV positive mother prevent transmit HIV to children


15. Give any four diseases that are important to screen in dealing with key population groups e.g  men who have sex with men and female sex workers



· hepatitis B

· hepatitis c

· TB




16. What should not be excluded in your physical examination of the key population and why


· Anal, oral and rectal examination because of tendency of KVP the anal and oral sex practice




· KEY POPULATIONS are defined groups who due to specific higher risk behaviors are at increased risk of HIV, irrespective of the epidemic type or local context.


18.  Give five examples of KEY POPULATION groups


a) Men who have sex with men,

b) People who inject drugs,

c) People in prisons and other close settings

d) Sex workers and

e) Transgender people.



19. Define the term Transgender People

Transgender:is an umbrella term for people whose identity doesn’t conform to the norms and expectations traditionally associated with the sex assigned to them at birth, it includes people who are transsexual, transgender or otherwise gender non conforming


20. Point out risky behaviors that are found with Transgender people

a) Condom usage is very low among the MSM

b) Inconsistent condom usage also found to be low.

c) Majority of the TG in the country have been reported to prefer receptive anal position(bottom position).

d) Up to 36% were practicing paid sex and multiple sexual partners.

e) Having a female sexual partner is a common finding in most studies which increases the risk of transmission to the general population.


21. Define the term female sex workers arefemale adults who receive money or goods in exchange for sexual services either regularly or occasionallypoint out risky behaviors found amongst female sex workers

a) Their clients can serve as bridging population and transmit HIV to the general population

b) A study conducted estimated the number of clients per female sexual worker averages at 3

c) Also they are reported to be involved in risky behaviors such as multiple sexual partners, inconsistent condom use and the use of illicit drugs.


22. Define the term People who inject/use Drugs

PEOPLE WHO INJECT DRUGS; refers to people who inject psychotropic substances for non medical purposes.Injections – intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous or other injectable routes





23. Mention risky behaviors in people who inject or use drugs

a) Partners represent another population that can serve as a bridging population for HIV transmission

b) Very few studies have been done in Tanzania to identify risk behaviors in this population

c) However, there are low tendency for screening for HIV and other sexually transmissible infections


24. Give out at least 5 points to be included in the IEC for Key Vulnerable groups


a) Correct and consistent condom use

b) condom negotiation skills

c) STI/RTI prevention and control

d) HIV prevention

e) stigma and discrimination

f) multiple/concurrent partnerships

g) demand creation for HTC

h) promotion of health seeking behavior


25. Outline at least five behavioral interventions for Female sexual workers

a) Comprehensive condom programming

b) Targeted SBCC/IEC

c) Stigma and discrimination reduction programs

d) Counseling and other forms of psychosocial support

e) Personal development and family reintegration


26. Mention any FIVE  common STI syndromes

a) Urethral discharge syndromes (males)

b) Painful scrotal swelling (PSS) acute epididymorchitis

c) Vaginal discharge syndrome

d) Pelvic inflammatory disease

e) Genital ulcer disease (males and females)

f) Inguinal bubos

g) Anorectal syndrome

h) Neo natal conjunctivitis (ophthalmianeonatorum)

i) Oropharyngeal infection

27. Point out two most common micro organisms causing asymptomatic urethral and rectal STIs in Men who have sex with Men and Transgender people


a) 1.Chlamydia Trachomatis

b) 2. Neisseria Gonorrhea



28.  Approaches of Advocacy, communication and social mobilization (ACSM)

· Involving leaders

· Building partnership

· Mobilizing the community groups

· Capacity building

· Working with mass media




29. Goals and importance of  Advocasy, communication and social mobilization     

a) Motivate people to learn

b) Increase awareness

c) Influence social norms

d) Create behavioral change among selected individuals or subpopulations in the public

e) Create awareness on health issues


30. Describe communication and communication process

· The process of transmitting and receiving messages for the purpose of sharing information and ideas

· All communication involves a channel through which a message is transmitted from the sender to the receiver e.g. conversation, television, newspapers, radios, written messages and electronic media.




The process by which people learn about their health and more specifically, how to improve their health


32. List the principles of Health education


1. Know what to change decide what the key problems are

2. Know your audience

3. Know the environment for health education

4. Timing for HE

5. Know what to talk-to


33. Mention four levels of prevention of diseases of public health importance


1. primal/primordial prevention

2. primary prevention

3. secondary prevention

4. tertiary prevention



34. Give out FIVE principles of effective health education

a. Directed at people who have influence in the community

b. Repeated and reinforced over time using different methods

c. Adaptable, and uses existing channels of communication -for example, songs, drama, and story telling

d. Entertaining and attracts the community's attention

e. Uses clear simple language with local expressions and emphasizes short term benefits of action

f. Provides opportunities for dialogue and discussion to allow learner participation and feedback on understanding and implementation

g. Uses demonstrations to show the benefits of adopting practices








35. Mention at LEAST FIVE roles of health care educators

•Educate patients about medical procedures, operations, services, and therapeutic regimens.

•Create activities and incentives to encourage use of services by high risk patients.

•Educate service providers about behavioral, cultural, or social barriers to health.

•Promote self-care to provide high-quality care and avoid burnout.Develop activities to improve patient participation in clinical processes through individual health education.

•Protect, promote or maintain patient health and reduce risky behaviors through appropriate health education messages.

•Make community-based referrals by providing correct information.

•Assist communities to identify health needs and find solutions to improve health.

•Conduct community organizing and outreach, coalition-building, and advocacy.

•Mobilize resources to develop, promote, implement, and evaluate health programs, strategies, and campaigns.


36. Define social mobilization

Social mobilization is the process of bringing together supporters to raise awareness of and demand for a particular program


37. Identify groups that are involved in social mobilization


a) Policy makers

b) Opinion leaders

c) Extension workers

d) Professional groups

e) Faith based organizations

f) Business people

g) Communities

h) Individuals


38. Point out key IEC specific messages for female sex workers


· Family planning

· Prevention of mother to child transmission

· Cervical cancer prevention services

· Economic empowerment

· Child care and protection

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