LAW AND POLICIES IN PHARMACY PRACTICE | PAST PAPER | PST NTA LEVEL 5

LAW AND POLICIES IN PHARMACY PRACTICE | PAST PAPER | PST NTA LEVEL 5

1.    Section of procurement

Ø  Section 43 - Third party procurement

Ø  Section 51 - Qualification of tenderers

Ø  Section 57 - Language

Ø  Section 59 - Rejection of tenders

Ø  Section 63 -Application of the basic principles of procurement and disposal

Ø  Section 65 - Emergency procurement

 

2.     Function of procurement act

Ø  Develop a National Procurement Policy.

Ø  Review procurement policies, regulations, circulars and other related directives with a view of updating the same.

Ø  Monitor the implementation of Public Procurement Policies.

Ø  Advice the Central Government, local governments and statutory bodies on issues related to procurement policies.

Ø  Develop and manage procurement cadre

 

3.      Meaning of MSD…………………………………………………………

 

4.      Function of MSD

(i)      Manage procurement, storage and distribution of approved drugs and medical supplies.

(ii)    Apply technical and professional advice relating to management and control of pharmaceuticals.

(iii)  Monitor distribution of approved drugs and medical supplies.

(iv)  Disseminate any relevant information relating to drug and other medical supplies.

(v)    Apply commercial principle in procurement of approved drugs and medical supplies.

(vi)  Ensure availability in time of approved drugs and medical supplies with the public health system

5.      Strategies of MSD

v  Distribute medicines, medical supplies and laboratory reagents to health facilities.

v  Communicate with customers and provide information on the products availability.

v  Attend customer complaints.

v  Carry out market survey and advice on the rationality of MSD price catalogue for medicines and medical supplies.

v  Promote sales of dormant and obsolete items and communicate new arrivals to customers.

v  Provide Logistics and Support Services to customers.

v  Sourcing special orders and follow up after sales services.

v  Enhance compliance to delivery schedule and order fulfilment.

v  Improve lead-time and reduce order-processing time.

v  Ensure timely completion of transaction in the system to improve stock integrity.

 

6.      Challenges or difficult faced by MSD

a.      Stakeholders do not fully understand what is within MSD’s control and what is not, so MSD is sometimes incorrectly blamed for problems related to commodity availability

b.      Active participation/ information sharing about procurement plans among MoHCGC, MSD, donors and other sources of supply is insufficient.

c.       There are no uniform charges for logistics services provided by MSD for the different programs, and GOT does not regularly pay its share of these costs

d.      There are frequent delays in procurement of commodities at central level.

e.       Supply lead times are long, especially for non-framework international tenders (more than 40 weeks).

f.        Zonal stores are not holding all the commodities that might be ordered by facilities, which may be one of the reasons for facility orders not being ready on time.

g.      The physical storage capacity of MSD’s network (central and zones) is insufficient for the needs of the future

 

7.      Meaning of vertical program

·         Vertical programs (also known as stand-alone, categorical or free-standing programs or the vertical approach) refer to instances where “the solution of a given health problem [is addressed] through the application of specific measures through single-purpose machinery

 

8.      Task of Vertical Programs

  1. Greater service specialization and concentration.
  2. Increased profile for a high-priority disease or service.
  3. Better accountability
  4. More rapid results in weak health systems
  5. Better chance of success in weak states

F.     Demand factors

  1. Services for which health systems do not function

9.      Example of vertical program

                                I.            Reproductive Health Program

                             II.            National Aids Control Program

                          III.            National immunization Program

                          IV.            National TB/Leprosy Program

                            V.            Neglected Tropical Disease Program

                          VI.            National malaria Program

                       VII.            Tanzania Food and Nutrition Program

                    VIII.            Dental Program.

10. Procurement Principles for Vertical Program Medicines

  1. Value for money
  2. Competition

C.     Impartiality,

D.    Transparency

E.     Accountability

F.     Procurement ethics:

  1. Efficient and Effective Procurement.

11.  Partners in vertical program

  1. Global Fund,
  2. UNICEF,
  3. WHO
  4. USAID
  •  

12. Ways of Procurement of Health Services in vertical program

(a)    By horizontal delivery; all services that are delivered through public financed health systems and are commonly referred as comprehensive primary care (WHO 1978).

(b)   Vertical delivery of health services implies a selective targeting of specific interventions not fully integrated in health systems (Banerji 1984; Rifkin and Walt 1986).

13.  classification of controlled substances;

v  Schedule I controlled substances (marijuana, heroin and cathinone)

v  Schedule II  controlled substances(CocaineAmphetamine, Methamphetamine, opium tincture,

Methadone, Oxycodone, Morphine)

v  Schedule III controlled substances(Anabolic steroids testosterone, Buprenorphine, Dihydrocodeine and Ketamine)

v  Schedule IV controlled substances(benzodiazepines, such as  clonazepam, diazepam (Valium), and Lorazepam)

 

14.  Generally these controlled substances can be classified as follows:

o   Stimulants for example; Amphetamines, Nicotine and cocaine

o   Hallucinogens: for example;  LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), and Marijuana

o   Depressants: for example; opiates (Narcotics, Morphine, heroin, codeine), Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines and Alcohol.

 

15.  The following are steps (elements) in formulating National medicine policy

o   Organizing the process. 

o   Identifying and analyzing problems.

o   Setting goals and Tasks.

o   Drafting the policy.

o   Seeking wide agreement on the policy.

o   Obtaining formal endorsement of the policy.

o   Launching the policy.

 

16.  Those seven elements has the common components of national medicine policy which are;

o   Legislative and regulatory framework e.g. Drug regulatory authority.

o   Selection of essential medicine.

o   Supply.

o   Rational use of medicine.

o   Affordability.

o   Financial strategies for medicines.

o   Human resources development.

o   Monitoring and evaluation.

o   Research

 

17.  Challenges faced by national medicine policy

 Corruption

o   Lack of political will

o   Lack of resources

o   Technical expertise

o   Macroeconomic situation

o   Support of domestic and international interest group

o   Opposition from those who benefit from laisse’s fair approach

 

18.  Meaning of STG

 

Definition of STG: A systematically developed statement designed to assist practitioners and patients in making decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances

 

19.  Uses of STG

o   Diagnose,

o   Decide on treatment and pharmaceutical supply, and

o   Assist with adherence to the prescribed treatment. This use will more likely lead to the desired clinical outcome.

20.  Advantages of STG

a)       Provides standardized guidance to practitioners

b)      Encourages high quality care by directing practitioners to the most appropriate medicines for specific conditions

c)       Encourages the best quality of care since patients are receiving optimal therapy.

d)      Utilizes only formulary or essential medicines, so the health care system needs to provide only the medicines in the STGs

e)       Provides valuable assistance to all practitioners, especially to those with lower level skills

f)       Enables providers to concentrate on making the correct diagnosis because treatment options will be provided for them.

 

21.  Disadvantage of STG

v  Inaccurate or incomplete guidelines will provide the wrong information for providers and therefore do more harm than good. Guidelines may not be based on the most reliable information

v  Updating guidelines is difficult and time-consuming and must be done on a regular schedule or they will become obsolete very quickly

v  Guidelines have been referred to as “cook book” medicine. They provide information to treat the population, but not necessarily the individual patient

v  Guidelines provide a false sense of security, i.e. many providers will limit their evaluation of a particular patient as soon as it fits into a particular standard treatment.

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