PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY | PAST PAPER | PST NTA LEVEL 5

PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY | PAST PAPER | PST NTA LEVEL 5

PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY | PAST PAPER | PST NTA LEVEL 5

1.      What colour do gram positive and gram - negative bacteria take, respectively?

(a)   Pink and purple

(b)  Purple and Pink

(c)   Orange and yellow

(d)   Yellow and orange 

2.      Which bacteria appears purple – violet colour after staining.

(a)   Gram – positive

(b)   Gram – negative

(c)   Both gram – positive and gram negative

(d)   Neither gram positive nor gram negative

3.      Gram positive bacteria are usually more susceptible to?

(a)   Streptomycin

(b)   Tetracycline

(c)   Penicillin

(d)   Ampicillin

4.      Which of the following do you expect to be most resistant to high temperature

(a)   Bacillus subtillis

(b)   Neisseria gonorrhoeae

(c)   Eschericia coli

(d)   Streptococcus pyogenes

5.      Each of the following organisms is an important cause of urinary tract infection except

(a)   Klebsiella preumoniae

(b)   Escherchia colli

(c)   Bacteriodes fragillis

(d)   Proteus  mirabilis

6.      The gram stain differentiate between bacteria based on the composition of their.

(a)   Nucleus

(b)   Cell wall

(c)   Mitochondria

(d)   Cell membrane

 

7.      Maintaining the cold chain ensures that vaccines are stored according to the manufacturer’s instructions at :

(a)   O - +40c

(b)   – 1 - +50c

(c)   +2 - +10 0c

(d)  +2 - +80c

8.      Which of the following  of the following is are true of a vaccine refrigerator

(a)   An ordinary domestic refrigerator is sufficient provided it has only vaccines stored in it

(b)   Can be used to store urine sample

(c)   Should be lockable or in a lockable room

(d)   Should be away from radiators

(e)   Are best plugged into a switchless socket

9.      Which of the following vaccine is are given by the intramuscular

(a)   Influenza

(b)   BCG

(c)   Cholera

(d)  MMR

10.  In gram staining iodine is used as a

(a)   Fixative

(b)  Mordant

(c)   Solublizer

(d)   stain

 

SECTION B:  MULTIPLE TRUE AND FALSE QUESTIONS (20 )

INSTRUCTIONS:

v  This section consists of eight (8) questions with five options

v  Write the word TRUE for correct statement and word FALSE for wrong statement in the space provided 0.5  will be awarded for each correct answer.

 

1.      Pathogen  which do infect the conjunctiva

(a)   T ……………………………. Neisseria onorrhoeae

(b)   T ………………………….. Chlamydia trachomatis

(c)   F ……………………… staphylococcus epidermitis

(d)   F ……………………. ……….Neisseria preumoniae

(e)   F ……………………………..Staphylococcus aureus

2.      Streptococcus are seem as

(a)   T …………………………. Are gram positive cocci

(b)   F ………………………….. are gram negative cocci

(c)   T …………… …………arranged in chains or pairs

(d)   F …………………………….. arranged in spiral chain

(e)   T …………………… the name streptococci (steptos meaning twisted or coiled)

3.      In the vaccine  storage

(a)   F ……………………. Place fridge in direct sunlight or near heat source

(b)   T …………………….. Place vaccine in clearly labeled plastic mesh baskets

(c)   F …………………. Do not store vaccines in fridge doors or in solid plastic tray

(d)   T ……….. ensure back up facilities are available in the event of fridge failing

(e)   F ……………. Keep vaccine away from the fridge walls and cold air vents.

4.      The following are the common uses of disinfectants

(a)   T …………… hand hygiene body surface

(b)   F …………. Treatment of inflammation of the gums

(c)   F …………. Clean and deodorize wounds and ulcers

(d)   T ……………… medical equipments

(e)   T …………. Hospital, clinical environment

5.      The following are tools for monitoring cold chain

(a)   T ……….. cold room

(b)   T ……….. deep freezer

(c)   T ………………... Refrigerator

(d)   T …………………. Cool boxes

(e)   T ……………….. ice packs

6.      These factors does not affecting quality of vaccine

(a)   F …………… starting materials

(b)   F ……………. Product purity

(c)   F ……………, formulation stability

(d)   F. ……………… adventitious agents

(e)   F …………….. manufacturing practices

 

7.      Non – spore forming gram – positive Bacilli have  properties

(a)   T ………….. beaded appearance

(b)   T …………… club – shaped also V or L shape

(c)   T ………………. Nonmotile

(d)   T ……………..no capsule

(e)   T ………… facultative anaerobic

8.      Vaccine preventable diseases in Tanzania  are currently associated by immunization programme except

(a)   F …………… measles

(b)   F ……………. Polio

(c)   T ………………. Malaria

(d)   T …………….. HIV/ AIDS

(e)   F ………………. Hepatitis B

 

SECTION C: MATCHING ITEMS QUESTIONS (10 ) 

INSTRUCTIONS

v  This section consists of ten (10) matching items questions with two parts each contain five questions.

v  Match the items in column A with corresponding statements in column B by writing a letter of correct response in the space provided.

v  Each correct response is awarded one (1)

PART A

COLUMN A

COLUMN B

1.      BCG                                   C

A.    Nine month

2.      MEASLES                        A

B.     Four week

3.      TT1                                   D

C.     At birth

4.      OPVo                                A

D.    Any time at first contact

5.      DPT – HB1OPV1               B

E.     Six month after TT2

 

 

PART B

COLUMN A

COLUMN B

1.      Normal Flora                              E

A.    Used to carry small quantity of vaccines for only two hours period

2.      Differential staining                   D

B.     Sterilization method

3.      Crystal violet  (Violet, purple)  C

C.     Example of Basic dyes (stains)

4.      Gas vapor                                   B

D.    The most common are gram stains and acid – fast - stain

5.      Day carriers                               A

E.     They found in skin, elementary tract, etc

 

SECTION D: SHORT ANSWERS QUESTIONS (40 )

INSTRUCTIONS:

v  This question consists of five (5) questions.

v  Write a readable handwrite, DIRTY WORK IS NOT ALLOWED.

v  Each question carry eight

1.      (a) Define the following terms

(i)                 Bacteriostatic – inhibit the growth of microorganisms

(ii)              Bactericidal -   Kill the microorganisms

 

 

 (b) Mention three factors affecting activity of disinfectants and antiseptics

- Natural (Instrinsic) features of organism

- Chemical used

- Environment in which the chemical is used

2.       Mention at least two examples of disinfectants and antiseptic which are very useful

Disinfectant – UV – light, chlorine, Bleach

Antiseptic – Alcohol, iodine, hydrogen peroxide

 

3.      (a) Define the term staining - Is the process of applying dyes to a thin film of material containing microorganisms

(b) There are three types of staining mention them

§  Differential staining:

§  Special staining:

§  Simple staining

4.      Outline the four components of cold chain

§  Apparatus / equipments

§  Supplies

§  Manual efforts

§  Transportation

§  Communication

5.      Mention four types of equipments used in cold chain.

·         Vaccine carries

·         Cold packs

·         Day carries

·         Refrigerators

·         Walk in cooler

 

SECTION E: ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS (20 )

INSTRUCTIONS

v  This section consists of two (2) questions.

v  Write your answer on sheet of paper provided each question should start on a new page.

v  Each question carry 10

 

1.      Describe the importance of normal flora

-          Constitute a protective host defense mechanism

-          They produce vitamin B and K in intestine

-          They contribute to immunity by inducing low level of circulating and secretory antibodies that may cross reactive to pathogens.

-          They can cause disease when individuals become compromise.

-          The all flora of humans may harm their host since some of this bacteria a pathogens or opportunistic pathogens

 

2.      Explain the method of controlling cold chain.

-          Keep the vaccine in the appropriate conditions as suggested by manufactures’

-          Follow all precautions while transporting vaccine

-          Record the temperature  of storage place twice a day and preparing the temperature chart

-          Maintain the equipment of cold chain and appropriate functioning of its components, conducting potency tests from time to time.

-          Keep communication system effective and latest.

-          Train all the people associated with vaccination, about the maintenance and control cold change

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