PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS | PAST PAPER | PST NTA LEVEL 5

PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS | PAST PAPER | PST NTA LEVEL 5

1.      Define the following terms:

a.      Pharmacology

b.      Drug

c.       Pro-drug

d.      Medicine

2.      Give the meaning of the following

a.      Pharmacodynamic

b.      Pharmacokinetic

c.       Bioavailability

d.      Half-life

3.      What do you understand the following terms:

a.      Drug receptor

b.      Agonist

c.       Antagonist

d.      Therapeutic dose

e.       Toxic dose

4.      Define the following terms

a.      Therapeutic index

b.      Tolerance

c.       Drug dependence

d.      Habituation

5.      Mention four (4) pharmacokinetics parameters

6.      With examples outline seven (7) sources of drugs

7.      With their uses mention ten (10) pharmacological classes of essential medicines.

8.      With the examples mention ten (10) pharmacological classes essential medicine

9.      With examples outline six (6) classes of essential medicine acting on cardiovascular system.

10.  With the examples mention four (4) classes of essential medicine used for dermatological problems.

11.  With examples outline six (6) classes of essential medicine acting on gastrointestinal system.

12.  With the examples mention six (6) classes of essential medicine used for hormonal and antidiabetic agent.

13.  Mention five (5) examples of Vaccine.

14.  With the examples mention four (4) classes of essential medicine used for Ophthalmological problems.

15.  With the examples mention three (3) classes of essential medicine used for ear and nose disease.

16.  a. Anti-infective medicine

b. With examples mention five (5) pharmacological classes of anti-infective

      17. a. Mention three (3) examples of macrolide.

            b. Mention two (2) indication of macrolide

      18. Mention four (4) contraindication of macrolide.

      19. Write dose, dosage and course of the following drugs used in treating urinary tract infection in adult.

         a. Azithromycin

         b. Erythromycin

      20. Mention five (5) side effects of macrolide.

      21. a. Mention three (3) aminoglycoside which are active against pseudomonas aeruginosa.

            b. Mention aminoglycoside which is active against mycobacteria tuberculosis.

      22. Outline four (4) contraindications of aminoglycosides.

      23. Mention two (2) main side effects of aminoglycoside antibiotic.

      24. Mention six (6) contraindication of fluoroquinolones.

      25. Write dose, dosage and course of ciprofloxacin in treating the following disease in adult.

           a. Urinary tract infection

           b. Gonorrhea

           c.  Acute or chronic prostatitis

     26. Mention five (5) side effects of fluoroquinolones antibiotics

     27. In which conditions quinolones should be used with caution mention six (6) conditions.

    28. Mention five (5) Anti-tuberculosis drugs.

    29. Briefly explain the two phases in the management of tuberculosis.

    30. Outline five (5) contraindications of anti-tuberculosis drugs.

    31. Outline five (5) side effects of anti-tuberculosis drugs.

    32. Why amoebicides are contraindicated to people taking alcohol.

    33. Write dose, dosage and course of treatment of the following drugs

           a. Metronidazole-in treating (i) Intestinal amoebiasis

                                                            (ii) Extraintestinal amoebiasis

           b. Tinidazole-in treating (i) Intestinal amoebiasis.

   34.  Mention five (5) side effects of amoebiacides

   35.  Mention five (5) drugs from penicillin group and five (5) drugs from cephalosporin group.

   36. Mention five (5) anti-malarial drugs.

   37. Outline five (5) contraindications of anti-malarial drugs.

   38. Write dose, dosage and course of the following anti-malarial drugs.

         a. Quinine

         b. Artemether-Lumefantrine

   39. Mention side effects of anti-malarial drugs.

   40. Mention five (5) anthelminthic drugs.

   41. Write dose, dosage and course of the following anti-helminthetic drugs

          a. Mebendazole

          b. Albendazole

          c. Levamisole

  42. Outline five (5) side effects of anti-helminthetic drugs.

  43. Mention five (5) antifungal drugs.

  44. Outline five (5) side effects of antifungal drugs.

  45. List five (5) contraindication of antifungal drugs.

 

 

  46. With examples Outline Dose, side effects and contraindication of the following classes of anti-HIV drugs.

       a. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTIs)

       b. Non-Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTIs)

       c. Protease Inhibitor (PIs)

 47. a. List two (2) indication of acyclovir

       b. Outline five (5) side effects of acyclovir.

48. Mention three (3) indication of NSAIDs

49. Mention five (5) contraindication of NSAIDs

50. Mention five (5) side effects of NSAIDs.

51. Write dose, dosage and course of analgesic for

       a. Diclofenac

       b. Ibuprofen

       c. Paracetamol

       d. Piroxicam

       e. Mefenamic acid

52. Mention five (5) anti-allergy drugs.

53. Mention five (5) side effects of anti-allergy drugs.

54. Write the dose of:

      a. Cetirizine

      b. Adrenaline

      c. Hydrocortisone

      d. Promethazine.

55. With examples mention five (5) classes of drugs used in treating peptic ulcers.

56. Write dose, dosage and course of drug used for the treatment of helicobacter pylori.

57. Mention five (5) anti-emetic drugs.

58. Outline three (3) indications of anti-emetic drugs.

59. Mention six (6) side effects of anti-emetic drugs.

60. Mention three (3) drugs used in treating diarrhea.

61. Outline side effects of anti-diarrhea drugs.

62. Briefly explain how will you make ORS at home and administering to a patient suffering from diarrhea.

63. Mention four (4) anti-spasmodic drugs.

64. Mention three (3) indications of anti-spasmodic drugs.

65. Outline six (6) side effects of anti-spasmodic.

66. With examples mention three (3) types of insulin preparation.

67. Outline five (5) anti-diabetic drug.

68. Write the dose of:

       a. Metformin

       b. Chlorpropamide.

69. List six (6) side effects of metformin

70. With examples mention two classes of drugs used in treating asthma.

71. Write the dose, dosage and course of salbutamol used in treating asthma in children and adult.

72. a. Mention four (4) anti-epileptic drugs.

      b. Mention two (2) anticonvulsant drugs.

73. Outline side effects of anti-epileptic and anti-convulsant drugs.

74. With examples mentions two classes of anti-psychotic drugs.

75. Mention six (6) contraindications of anti-psychotic drugs.

76. Which conditions should anti-psychotic be used cautiously. Mention six (6) condition.

77. Outline six (6) side effects of antipsychotic.

78. A 58years female was treated with anti-psychotic drugs, after three months she started experiences extrapyramidal effects, anti-cholinergic effects and hyperprolactinemia effects. Briefly explain these side effects.

79. a. Outline six (6) side effects of vaccine

      b. Mention three contraindications of vaccine

80. a. List precautions for using non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase Efavirenz

b.      Outline the advantage of Lopinavir-Ritonavir drug interaction

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