1.       Describe several of the protective chemicals produced by the skin and mucous membranes. 

2.       Describe the four major types of transplant grafts. 

3.       Explain three current theories that attempt to explain why self-tolerance breaks down in autoimmune disorders. 

4.       Describe the methods the body uses to help return lymph to the heart. 

5.       List and describe the cells and chemicals the body uses as its second line of defense. 

6.       Explain the origin and pathway of lymph. 

7.       Identify the four most common indicators and major symptoms of an acute inflammatory response and explain their origins. 

8.       The central region of the thoracic cavity containing the heart is called the __

9.       The system that functions in the storage of minerals, such as calcium, is called the 

10.   The component of a control system that provides the means for the control centerʹs response (output) is called the

11.   The thoracic cavity is __________ to the abdominopelvic cavity. 

12.   The __________ system is composed of kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra.

13.   The ability to sense changes and react to them is termed __________ or __________. 

14.   The armpit area is called the __________ region.   

15.   The epigastric region is __________ to the right hypochondriac region of the abdominopelvic cavity.  

16.   Explain about leucocytes and its different types

17.   Describes the erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets

18.   Explain five (5) component of human blood

19.   Describes the blood clotting mechanism

20.   Explain common disorder of human blood system

21.   Describe anatomical position. Explain why anatomical position is used.  

22.   Explain the difference between homeostatis and metabolism. 

23.   List and explain the eight necessary human life functions. 

24.   Explain how scratching an itch is an example of the negative feedback mechanism. 

25.   Describe the role of the effector in the negative feedback system. 

26.   List, and briefly define, the human bodyʹs organization levels from smallest to largest. 

27.   List and explain the three major body planes and sections. 

28.   Distinguish between anatomy and physiology. 

29.   Identify the two dorsal body cavities, and state their locations and the organs contained therein. 

30.   List the four quadrants and nine regions of the abdominopelvic cavity. Explain why this cavity has these subdivisions. 

31.   List and explain the five survival needs of humans.

32.   Explain why a denatured protein no longer functions. 

33.   Explain why enzymes are specific to their substrates. 

34.   Compare DNA and RNA from the standpoint of their location, role(s), number of chains, arrangement of nucleotides, and sugars and bases present.  

35.   Differentiate between a molecule and a compound. 

36.   Distinguish between a dehydration synthesis and a hydrolysis reaction. 

37.   Discuss the major properties of water that make it so vital to the proper functioning of the body. 

38.   Explain why hydrolysis (decomposition) reactions require the addition of water. 

39.   Explain why ATP is classified as a nucleic acid. 

40.   Explain how saturated fats are different from unsaturated fats. 

41.   List the three parts of a nucleotide. 

42.   Describe the difference between a polar and a nonpolar covalent bond. Give and explain an example of each type of bond. 

43.   Name this type of reaction and briefly explain what is happening in this reaction:

44.   glucose + fructose water +sucrose 

45.   Since epithelial tissues are avascular, explain how these tissues receive nourishment. 

46.   A fat-soluble vitamin, vitamin A, is moving down its concentration gradient into a cell. What type of membrane transport is responsible for its movement? Describe this process. 

47.   Discuss the four stages of mitosis. 

48.   Discuss the three steps in protein synthesis. 

49.   List, describe, and state the functions of the three major elements of the cytoplasm. 

50.   List the three different types of RNA and identify their functions. 

51.   Differentiate between the two types of endoplasmic reticulum. 

52.   Explain why an intravenous solution should be isotonic for a patient. 

53.   Explain the differences among the three types of muscle tissue. 

54.   Identify the five molecules found in the plasma membrane and state their functions. 

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