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NOTES ZA WIZARA CLINICAL MEDICINE NTA LEVEL 4 ALL SEMISTERS

NOTES ZA WIZARA CLINICAL MEDICINE NTA LEVEL 4 ALL SEMISTERS

DOWNLOAD NOTES ZA WIZARA CMT 4 | NOTES ZA WIZARA CMT NTA LEVEL 4

CMT NTA LEVEL 4 NOTES ZA WIZARA

SEMISTER 1

  1. CMT04101: Communication Skills And Customer Care  
  2. CMT04102: Human Anatomy  
  3. CMT04103: Human Physiology
  4. CMT04104: Epidemiology And Biostatistics
  5. CMT04105: Computer Applications
  6. CMT04106: Medical Ethics And Professionalism
  7. CMT04107: Microbiology, Parasitology And Entomology

 

SEMISTER 2

  1. CMT04208:Clinical Nutrition
  2. CMT04209: Clinical Skills
  3. CMT04210: Pathology
  4. CMT04211: Clinical Laboratory
  5. CMT04212:Patient Care

Below are example of notes za wizara from microbiology, parasitology and entomology.

Definitions of Terms

      Bacteriology: Is the study of bacteria.  

      Prokaryotic cells: Are simple unicellular organism without a distinct nucleus and other specialized cell structures.  Example of prokaryotic cell is bacterial cell.  

      Eukaryotic cells: Are cells that contain nucleus, a sack like structure that encloses a cell’s genetic materials. The presence of nucleus differentiates eukaryotic cell from prokaryotic cell.

      Bacteria: Are unicellular free living organisms without chlorophyll having both DNA and RNA. They are capable of performing all essential processes of life example growth, metabolism and reproduction. 

 

Characteristics of Prokaryotic Cells

      The genetic material (DNA, RNA) of prokaryotic cells is not membrane-bounded

      Prokaryotes have no true nucleus and other membrane-bound structures known as organelles. 

      They normally possess just a single chromosome that is separated from other cell contents by a membrane.

      The characteristics of prokaryotic cells apply to the bacteria, cyanobacteria (formerly known as blue-green algae) and archaebacteria. 

 

Structure of Bacterial Cell and Function of Each Part

 

Parts of a Bacterial Cell and their Functions

      Bacterial cell is comprised of the following parts  o Cell wall  o Capsule  o Flagella  o Pilli (Fimbriae)  o Cytoplasmic/Plasma membrane 

o   Mesosomes  o Cytoplasm  o Ribosomes

o   Nucleoid material (DNA and RNA)

      Not all bacteria possess all of these components

 

Major Similarities between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

      They both have DNA and RNA as their genetic material

      They are both membrane bound 

      They both have ribosomes

      They have similar basic metabolism

      They are both diverse groups

 

Classification of Bacteria 

• Bacteria are classified according to a number of criteria, including: o Morphology

o   Staining characteristics o Nature of cell wall o Ability to form spores

o   Ability to grow in the presence or absence of oxygen  

 

Classification of Bacteria According to Morphology/Shape  

      Cocci: These are round or oval shaped bacteria. When multiplying cocci may form  o Pairs (called diplococci for example meningococci and gonococci) o Chains (called streptococci example Streptococcus pyogenes)

o   Irregular groups or clusters (called staphylococci, example is staphylococcus aureus)

 

Bacilli: These are rod shaped bacteria. When multiplying bacterial rods do not usually remain attached to one another, but separate. Occasionally however, they may form

      Chains, example are  Streptobacilli  o Branching chains, example are Lactobacilli  o Mass together; example is Mycobacterium leprae

o   Remains attached at various angles example Corynebacterium diphtheria  

      Spiral: These are small regularly coiled, rigid organisms.  Examples Spirillum minus

      Comma shaped: These are small slightly curved rods (comma shaped).  Example Vibrio cholera

      Spirochaetes: These are flexible, coiled, motile organisms they progress by rapid body movement.  Example, treponema species, borrelia species, and leptospires.

 

Classification of Bacteria according to Staining Characteristics.  

      Gram positive: When stained by Gram stain, appears blue reflecting the colour of primary stain (either gentian violet, crystal violet or methyl violet).  Examples, Staphylococci species, Streptoccoci species. Clostridium tetani.

      Gram negative bacteria are bacteria which appears red, after losing the colour of primary stain and adapting the colour of a counter stain (dilute carbofuchsin or safranin, or neutral red) when stained by Gram stain o Examples, neisseria species, salmonella species, haemophilus species 

 

Classification of Bacteria According to Nature of Cell Wall

      Rigid thick wall for examples  streptococcus, staphylococcus  

      Wall less for example Mycoplasma

             

Classification of Bacteria According to Ability to Form Spores

      Spores are highly resistant dormant state of bacteria with dense thick walls able to withstand dehydration heat, cold and action of disinfectants.  

      In this kind of classification there are o Spore forming bacteria for examples bacillus species and clostridium species o Non spore forming bacteria for examples corynebacteria species  like corynebactrium diphtheria 

 

Classification of Bacteria According to Ability to Grow in the Presence or Absence of Air  

      Grows in the presence of air (aerobic bacteria) for example bacillus anthracis

      Grows in the absence of air (anaerobic bacteria) for example clostridium species.

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