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PHYSIOLOGY | BANK OF QUESTIONS | DOWNLOAD

PHYSIOLOGY | BANK OF QUESTIONS | DOWNLOAD

1.      Describe the blood circulation in the fetus                                                           

 

Answer

Introduction                                                                                                                     

·         Blood circulation in fetus differs from circulation after birth because the foetus receives oxygen and nutrients from maternal blood

Main body                                                                                                                      

·         Blood form placenta to foetus carried by umbilical veins

·         From the umbilical vein enter the foetal ductus venosus

·         Then passes the liver and enter the inferior vena cava

·         From the inferior vena cava into the right atrium by pass fetal pulmonary circulation

·         Enters left atrium through opening foramen ovale

·         Enter the left ventricle and being pumped through the aorta to the rest of the body

·         Lastly blood from iliac artery carry CO2 enter umbilical artery to the placenta.

 

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PHYSIOLOGY BANK QUESTIONS



2.      Briefly describe the main functions of blood                                            

 

Answer

Definition:                                                                                                                        

·         Blood is aspecialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells such as nutrients, oxygen and transports waste products away from those same cells and accounts for 7% of the human body weight

 

Functions                                                                                                                        

·         Supply of oxygen to tissues (bound to hemoglobin which is carried in red cells)

·         Supply of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids and fatty acids (dissolved in the blood or bound to plasma proteins (e.g. blood lipids)

·         Removal of waste such as carbon dioxide, urea and lactic acid

·         Immunological functions, including circulation of white cells, and detection of foreign material by antibodies

·         Coagulation, which is one part of the body's self-repair mechanism

·         Messenger functions, including the transport of hormones and the signaling of tissue damage

·         Regulation of body pH

·         Regulation of core body temperature

 

3.      Explain the functions of lymphatic system                                                            

 

Definition                                                                                                

·         Lymphatic system is a network of tissue, organs, and vessels that help to maintain the body’s fluid balance, cleanse the body fluid of foreign matter and provide immune cells for defense.

 

Functions                                                                                                            

·         Maintenance of fluid balance in the internal environment. It transport excess interstitial fluid back to bloodstream

·         Absorption and transport of dietary fat, in which special lymphatic capillaries (lacteals) receive all absorbed fat (chyle) from the intestine and convey it through the thoracic duct to the venous system

·         House Lymphocytes

·         Generate An Immune Response

o   Lymphocyte are activated in the lymph nodes

o   When foreign protein drains from an infected area, antibodies specific to the protein are produced by immunologically competent cells and/or lymphocytes and dispatched to the infected area

 

1.      What are Effect of prostaglandin

Ø  Facilitate inflammatory response

Ø   Potentiating pain

Ø   Regulating blood pressure

Ø   Blood clotting

Ø   Uterine contraction during labour

Ø   Cause constriction or dilation in vascular smooth muscle cells

Ø   Cause aggregation or disaggregation of platelets

Ø   Sensitize spinal neurons to pain

Ø  Decrease intraocular pressure

Ø   Regulate inflammatory mediation

Ø   Regulate calcium movement

Ø   Control hormone regulation

Ø   Control cell growth

Ø   Acts on thermoregulatory center of hypothalamus to produce fever

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.      What is the effect of insulin

Ø  Acting on cell membranes and stimulating uptake and use of glucose by muscle and connective tissue cells.

Ø   Increasing conversion of glucose to glycogen (glycogenesis), especially in the liver and skeletal muscles.

Ø  Accelerating uptake of amino acids by cells, and the synthesis of protein.

Ø   Promoting synthesis of fatty acids and storage of fat in adipose tissue (lipogenesis).

Ø   Decreasing glycogenolysis (breakdown of glycogen, into glucose).

Ø   Preventing the breakdown of protein and fat, and gluconeogenesis

 

3.      What ere the functions of thyroid hormone

Ø  They increase the basal metabolic rate and heat production.

Ø   Regulating metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

Ø   T3 and T4 are essential for normal growth and development, especially of the skeleton and nervous system

 

4.      What are the Function of Calcitonin

Ø  It acts on bone and the kidneys to reduce the blood calcium (Ca2+) level when it is raised.

Ø   It reduces the reabsorption of calcium from bones and inhibits reabsorption of calcium by the renal tubules.

Ø   Its effect is opposite to that of parathyroid hormone, the hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands.

Ø   Release of calcitonin is stimulated by an increase in the blood calcium level.

Ø   This hormone is important during childhood when bones undergo considerable changes in size and shape

 

5.      What are the features of Hyperthyroidism

Ø  Palpitations

Ø  Tremor

Ø  Anxiety symptoms

Ø  Diarrhea

Ø  Weight loss

Ø  Heat intolerance

 

6.      What are Functions of the Parathyroid Gland

Ø  Regulation of serum calcium.

 

7.      Which blood group is universal donor

Ø  Blood group O

 

8.      Which blood group is universal recipient

Ø  Blood group AB

 

9.      What is the function of blood

Ø  Supply of oxygen to tissues (bound to haemoglobin which is carried in red cells

Ø  Supply of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids and fatty acids (dissolved in the blood or bound to plasma proteins (e.g. blood lipids)

Ø   Removal of waste such as carbon dioxide, urea and lactic acid

Ø   Immunological functions, including circulation of white cells, and detection of foreign material by antibodies

Ø  Coagulation, which is one part of the body's self-repair mechanism

Ø   Messenger functions, including the transport of hormones and the signalling of tissue damage

Ø  Regulation of body pH (the normal pH of blood is in the range of 7.35 - 7.45)

Ø  Regulation of core body temperature

 

10.  What is the composition of blood

Ø  Plasma

Ø   Formed elements

                                                                    i.            Erythrocytes (red blood cells)

                                                                  ii.            Leukocytes (white blood cells)

                                                                iii.             Thrombocytes (platelets)

 

11.  List down characteristics of life

Ø  Organization

Ø  Metabolism

Ø  Responsiveness

Ø  Growth

Ø  Reproduction

Ø  Respiration

Ø  Excretion

Ø  Circulation

 

12.  List down  Mechanism that Maintain Homeostasis of Body Fluid

Ø  Neural mechanism

Ø  Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism

Ø  Atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH) mechanism

Ø  Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) mechanism

 

13.  What is the function of spleen

Ø  Defense

Ø  Hematopoiesis

Ø  Red blood cell and platelet destruction

Ø  Blood reservoir

 

14.  What are Stages of Cardiac Cycle

Ø  Atrial Systole: Contraction of the atria

Ø  Ventricular Systole: Contraction of the ventricles

Ø  Complete cardiac Diastole: Relaxation of atria and ventricles

 

15.  What are Factors affect the stroke volume

Ø  Ventricular end diastolic volume

Ø  Venous return

Ø  Strength of myocardium contraction

Ø  Blood volume

 

16.  Mention four forces used for  formation of tissue fluid (Starling forces)

Ø  Blood hydrostatic pressure

Ø  Blood colloid Osmotic pressure

Ø   Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure

Ø   Interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure


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